Erie Indian Moundbuilders Tribal Nation

Time Dimension Dynamic

Researched by Victoria Taylor-True 2005-2006

Based on the Vedic scriptures: ** the human race is much older than now generally accepted, and various humanlike and apelike beings coexisted for long periods in the past.

If the hypotheses brought forward in The Hidden History of the Human Race are correct, that humans are far older than commonly believed, and that humanlike and apelike beings coexisted for long periods of time, then who were Homo Australopithecus, habilis, and Homo erectus? Some scientists have already acknowledged that we really do not know where Homo sapiens came from. Could all these early hominids be the mixed forms between humans and apelike beings as described in theosophical literature? Perhaps the search for the first apeman who stood up and behaved like a human is irrelevant. Could it be that man is his own ancestor? **

The time concept of modern archeology, and modern anthropology in general, resembles the general cosmological-historical time concept of Europe's Judeo-Christian culture. Differing from the cyclical cosmological-historical time concepts of the early Greeks in Europe, and the Indians and others in Asia, the Judeo-Christian cosmological-historical time concept is linear and progressive. Modern archeology also shares with Judeo-Christian theology the idea that humans appear after the other major species. The author subjectively positions himself within the Vaishnava Hindu world view, and from this perspective offers a radical critique of modern generalizations about human origins and antiquity. Hindu historical literatures, particularly the Puranas and Itihasas, place human existence in the context of repeating time cycles called yugas and kalpas, lasting hundreds of millions of years. During this entire time, according to the Puranic accounts, humans coexisted with creatures in some ways resembling the earlier tool making hominids of modern evolutionary accounts. If one were to take the Puranic record as objectively true, and also take into account the generally admitted imperfection and complexity of the archeological and anthropological record, one could make the following prediction. The strata of the earth, extending back hundreds of millions of years, should yield a bewildering mixture of hominid bones, some anatomically modern human and some not, as well as a similarly bewildering variety of artifacts, some displaying a high level of artistry and others not. Given the linear progressivist preconceptions of generations of archeologists and anthropologists, one could also predict that this mixture of bones and artifacts would be edited to conform to their deeply rooted linear-progressive time concepts. A careful study of the archeological record, and the history of archeology itself, broadly confirms these two predictions. Linear-progressivist time concepts thus pose a substantial barrier to truly objective evaluation of the archeological record and to rational theory- building in the area of human origins and antiquity.
Cremo, Michael A. (1994) "Puranic Time and the Archeological Record." World Archaeological Congress 3, New Delhi, India

> SEE Archaeology Digs link to view history in the making
New World prehistory is divided by archaeologists into a series of eras based on the subsistence patterns and technology of the people.
The first is the PaleoIndian Period (pre 9000 B.C., people were nomadic hunter-gatherers focusing on big game),
Archaic Period (9000-1000 B.C., smaller game animals, appearance of pottery),
Woodland Period (1000 B.C.-A.D.900, first agriculture, semi-permanent settlements, mounds for burials),
Early Mississippian Period (A.D.900-1100, a people that spread from the Mississippi Valley, more crops, true towns, huge mounds, chiefdoms, stratified societies),
Late Mississippian-Lamar (A.D.1350-c.1690,
the palisaded towns and temple mounds of OCMULGEE, the people that DeSoto visited in the southeast in the early 1540’s),
Historic Period (c.A.D. 1690-1715).

  • Early Paleo-Indian Period" about 10,000 - 8,000 BC
      This period covers the last two millennia of the Ice Age. Early Paleo-Indians moved more and the weather was colder and wetter than in the "late" paleo period. Also, the forests covered more land. The Louisiana gulf coast was 100 miles farther south than it is today - and ancient Indian sites are believed to exist today beneath the waters of the Gulf of Mexico. An LDA educational poster shows that there are eight "important" Paleo-Indian exploration sites in Louisiana, but it does not indicate which sites were "early Paleo" and which were "late Paleo". The earliest of Louisiana Indians either traveled here from Texas or traded with the people of Texas. Many of their tools were made of Texas stone. Stone points used in hunting during this period varied in size from medium to large. They sometimes sharpened spear points many times - and sometimes reshaped them to other types of tools - such as knives, drills and scrapers. Mastodon and large bison were sometimes the prey to these earliest humans to America. Mastodons and large bison vanished with the end of the Ice Age, perhaps killed off by humans. As for longevity of humans, most did not live past their early 20s.
  • Late Paleo-Indian Period" (about 8,000 - 6,000 BC)
      Indian sites of this period were widespread. Whatever the time period, certain aspects of Indian life remained the same. Their campsites were located in the proximity of water. They ate whatever was available. They wore animal skin clothing, and they made implements of stone, wood, and bone. The late Paleo-Indians did not range as far as their predecessors - probably because of the milder, less demanding weather. Nuts, fruits and berries were more plentiful in this warmer clime and consequently became more than just an occasional part of their diet. They began to use darts and throwing sticks called atlatls. More of their stones were made from local sources than before and the points made from them were smaller. Stone axes and adzes came into use. Both early and late Paleos made their shelters from animal skins and woven mats. They probably lived in groups of 2 or more families. There was increased security and efficiency in numbers.
  • "Meso-Indian Period" (about 6,000-2,000 BC)
      11 "important" Meso-Indian sites in Louisiana. Except for one fairly close to Shreveport they were all located in the eastern half of the state - roughly east of the longitude that passes through Ruston. As early as 5,000 BC they were building earthen mounds throughout eastern Louisiana. They made a greater variety of stone points. They left "ground stone" axes - and grinding stones. They heated stones to cook their food. They ate a greater variety of both plant and animals food - food with which we would be familiar - with the exception of acorns, snakes, some types of rodents and snails. Evidence of rectangular structures have been found in the soil of their ancient campsites, some as large as 35 feet by 35 feet - the sides and roofs of which were covered by thatch and tree branches. They made beads, some shaped like frogs and locusts. They also made clay bricks. Several households probably lived together in the larger buildings. They moved less frequently than the Paleo-Indians. Clay pottery was not yet in use.
  • Poverty Point Indians Period" (about 1,800 - 1,400 BC)
      At Poverty Point, Louisiana, not too far from Monroe, there are enormous earthen mounds carbon-dated to the time of King Tut. Five thousand people inhabited this ancient city while most other Indians of their day were living in small semi-sedentary groups along streams of water. These mounds are said to be "older than any other earthworks of this size in the western hemisphere". The largest mound is 70 feet high with a base 710 ft by 640 ft. (The Great Pyramid is 486 ft high with a base of 756 ft by 756 ft). It is shaped as a huge semicircle with six ridges - 37 acres in size. Poverty Point is reminiscent of the Mayan sites in Mexico, places where large numbers of people assembled for ceremonial purposes. Interestingly, Poverty Point came into existence just as the Mayan civilization entered its formative stage. The Poverty Point people made few clay pots. (Poverty Point La. publication + Encarta97)
      Note: Another mound site in the Monroe area may have been discovered since the LDA Poverty Point pamphlet was printed. There is a September 19, 1997 AP article telling about mounds that are the Aoldest known human-built structures in North America ..... containing 11 mounds in a rough circle 280 yard across .. one 20 feet high .. the rest (being) 3 to 14 feet high .. (with construction) started about 5,400 years ago .. older than mounds found in Florida and elsewhere in Louisiana". The article states the mounds are at a place called AWatson Brake, about 20 miles southwest of Monroe@. I have not found AWatson Brake@ on a one-inch-equals-2.5-miles map, but from the topographical description given in the news article, the site might be a couple of miles west of the McLain community - in the flats on the west side of the Ouachita River. That is the location of Watson Creek - and nearby is the ALapine Brake@.
  • Archaic 8000 - 1000 BC
  • Woodland 1000BC - 1000AD
  • "Early Neo-Indian Period" (about 700 BC - 700 AD)
      The LDA poster shows 13 "important" Louisiana sites of Indian activity dating back to this period. Important changes occurred: the making of clay pots, the farming of plants, religious practices, the construction of conical burial mounds (a few with flat tops), the wearing of jewelry to show high rank, the making of ceramic pipes, and the construction of shelters that looked like grass igloos. Their stone points looked a lot like those of the Meso-Indians. The Early Neo-Indians traded with the Hopewell Indian culture of Ohio, showing that they were not so isolated as we might be inclined to believe.
  • Mississippian (800?) 900 - 1550
    • Early Mississippian 900 - 1150
  • "Late Neo-Indian Period" (about 1,000 - 1,600 AD)
      There are 11 "important" late-paleo exploration sites shown on the LDA poster - mostly in the eastern portion of the state. Indian villages were much larger than in earlier times with settlements scattered for a mile or more along major rivers. Bows and arrows became more important than before. Clay objects showed greater variety. Ceramic effigies were made - as were tobacco pipes, copper ear ornaments and figurines. Corn, squash and beans were being cultivated. Priests and rulers may have led ceremonies from atop earthen mounds. Shelters were circular structures with straight sides topped with a domed roof made of thatch.
    • Middle Mississippian 1150 - 1350
    • Late Mississippian 1350 -1500

The question of "who" the original Americans were is one of the most contentious, politically sensitive topics of our times.

When did the first Americans arrive on the continent? How did they get here? Who were they? These are some of the questions archaeologists have debated for decades. The Peopling of the Americas: a feature story which ran in the December 2000 edition of National Geographic Magazine shows that while the experts have carbon-dated, excavated, researched and compared their way to many theories, there remain a number of unresolved issues.

Some scholarly speculation has placed the beginning of Native American civilization in about 5,000 B.C., roughly 6,500 years before 1492 A.D., when "Columbus sailed the ocean blue." Although he was an avid ocean crosser, Columbus made four trans-Atlantic voyages from Spain, but never reached North America. Because he knew the earth was round, he reasoned he could reach "the Indies" by sailing West. He didn't bargain on running into another, then unknown continent.
There remains disagreement over whether the American Indians came here by boat—and from where is even less certain—or if their founding fathers "fell from the sky," as some Indian faith purports. But either way they came here more directly than Columbus.

Archaeological and linguistic evidence indicates they migrated in prehistoric times from present-day Texas or northern Mexico to the Great Lakes area. Wars with the Iroquois of the New York area and the Delaware peoples pushed them south-east to the regions of the Allegheny and Appalachian mountains in modern North and South Carolina, Tennessee, and northern Georgia and Alabama. There the Spanish explorer Hernando de Soto encountered them in 1540. In 1715 smallpox reduced their population to about 11,000.


40,000-20,000 BP: DNA evidence indicated that four distinct population lineages entered the New World across the Bering Sea during this period.

40,000 BC: The oldest Asian Homo sapiens are of about this age (in the opinion of some).
40,000 BC: The earliest evidence for personal ornaments appeared in anatomically modern humans about this time.

40,000BC-20,000 BC: Cultures in Eastern US and Canada, from original migration of Man from Asia during Pleistocene, possibly a big-game hunting tradition, Minnesota to Louisiana. Also active 8000BC and further.

40,000-20,000 BC: Man is possibly entering the Americas via the Bering Strait crossing, time of an Ice Age? Better toolkits in use by 6000BC.

33,00 BC or as early as 88,000BC: Human origins: The out-of-Africa theory is being discussed again after new genetic research suggests that 12,000 Asian men from Iran to Papua New Guinea are descended from migrants from Africa who departed as long ago as 98,000BC. The migrating Africans did not interbreed with "archaic" hominid forms such as Peking Man or Java Man, say the international team led by Dr. Li Jin of Fudan University in China. Rather, the African homo sapiens completely replaced earlier populations in East Asia. This latest study, a search for three specific mutations, examined the Y chromosome of of men from 163 populations from India, Siberia, East Asia, China, Taiwan, Indonesia and some South Pacific islands. (The Y chromosome is passed unchanged from father to son.) The three mutations in questions in turn derive from an earlier mutation that arose in men in Africa between 33,000BC and 87,000BC. The findings from this research are tending to be disputed by proponents of the regional continuity theory which contradicts the "out-of-Africa" theory and argues that humanity arose co-incidentally in several regions on earth. (Reported 19-20 May 2001 in Sydney Morning Herald. See a recent issue of journal Science.)

30,OOO BC: In 1994, a cave is found in the Ardeche region of south-eastern France with drawings and engravings dating to about 30,000BC. (Reported in The Australian, 6 July 2001)

28,000 BC: An amateur cave explorer near the hamlet of Cussac, western France's Dordogne area, has last September 2000 made a major find of a cave inhabited in prehistoric times, presenting vivid engravings and several human graves. The engravings may even pre-date the famous paintings of France's Lascaux caves, which date to about 16,000BC. One commentator is Dany Baraud, chief archaeologist at Regional Direction of Cultural Affairs of Aquitaine. Some hundreds of metres of engravings in the new find depict animals including bison, horses and rhinoceros, plus humans. Evidently in France, the finding of graves in a painted cave is unprecedented. (In 1994, a cave was found in the Ardeche region of south-eastern France with drawings and engravings dating to about 30,000BC.) (Reported in The Australian, 6 July 2001)

15,000 B. C. -- Rama Empire of northern Indian and Pakistan developed around 15,000 b.c., thousands of years after the estimated start of Atlantis. The Rama empire developed many large sophisticated cities on or around the Indian sub-continent. Many of the remains of these cities can be found in Pakistan. Rama was ruled by priest-kings who governed the cities of Rama. The seven largest capital cities were called the Seven Rishi Cities. It is rumored that the Rama Empire was the parallel to Atlantis, and thus being it's greatest rival. ?Rama Empire had something to do with the dissapearance of Atlantis.
--- Rama Empire of northern Indian and Pakistan developed around 15,000 b.c., thousands of years after the estimated start of Atlantis. The Rama empire developed many large sophisticated cities on or around the Indian sub-continent. Many of the remains of these cities can be found in Pakistan. Rama was ruled by priest-kings who governed the cities of Rama. The seven largest capital cities were called the Seven Rishi Cities. It is rumored that the Rama Empire was the parallel to Atlantis, and thus being it's greatest rival. It is my belief that the Rama Empire had something to do with the dissapearance of Atlantis.
--- The Destruction of Atlantis There are theories about the final destruction of Atlantis. These theories include massive floods, earthquakes, wars, and the earth-crust displacement theory. The earht-crust displacement theory states that when the polar icecaps acquire too much mass, they shift in one great piece, re-positioning everyting with relation to the poles. This is why Atlantis is usually positioned two thousand miles north, while it is entirely feasable that Atlantis exists under Antarctica.
Edgar Cayce saw a civilization destroyed by their excessive use of explosives to hunt animals. He also saw that before the final destruction, the Atlantean continent had been split into five massive islands by immense earthquakes. The biggest of these was Poseida. Cayce also believed that it was more of a cultural destruction that rocked Atlantis to it's foundation. After many exoduses by Atlanteans, they sought to teach the natives they find, so that their great civilization would not be lost. Cayces says that there are traces of the Atlantean civilization in the Native Americans (who aren't really native Americans, but that's another story...), cities in Egypt, Morrocco, and in Central America.
--- Another theory involves the supposed Rama Empire of India. Atlanteans, being gods to the primatives at the time, were constantly at war with the Rama Empire. That also the use of nuclear weapons were used in this war. I give as proof this following passage from the Mahabharata, an ancient Indian book: "a single projectile charged with the power of the universe. An incandescent column of smoke and flame as bright as the thousand suns rose in all its splendor... an iron thunderbolt, a gigantic messanger of death, which reduced to ashes the entire race of the Vrishnis and Andhakas. The corpses were so burned as to be unrecognizable. The hair and nails fell out; pottery broke without apparent cause, and the birds turned white. After a few hours all foodstuffs were infected. To escape this fire, the soldiers threw themselves in streams to wash themselves and their equipment."
When Mohenjondaro, a Rishi City, was excavated by archeologists in the past century, they found skeletons lying in the streets as if some great doom had suddenly overtaken them. When the archaelogists took radiation counts, they were the most radioactive skeletons found until the time of Hiroshima. Also, ancient cities in India, Ireland, Scotland, France, and Turkey have been found with brick fused together. There was also black lumps of glass in the streets of some of the cities that turned out to be clay pots that melted under intense heat.

11,000 B.C. to 8,810 B.C. - The Sphinx on Giza Plateau faces east. According to the latest astronomical and geological analysis, its time of construction was very likely much earlier than previous archaeologists’estimates. Professor Robert M. Schoch, from the Geological Society of America, said that corrosion on the body of the Sphinx was probably not due to sand blown by wind. The corrosion made by sand and wind would be horizontal and sharp, but the edge of corrosion on the body of Sphinx was comparatively round and blunt and showed curved down waviness. Some of the corrosion was very deep, up to 2 meters. On the other hand, the level of corrosion on the upper body was relatively more serious than that of the lower body. This is a typical of corrosion made by rain. The time that the Sphinx was exposed to the air was no longer than 1,000 years, and after that it was buried under sand and stones. If the Sphinx was really built in the Khafre Dynasty in ancient Egypt and was corroded by sand and wind, its contemporaneous architecture made of limestone should have corrosion to the same degree as the Sphinx had. However, since 3000 B.C. there has not been adequate rainwater that could have corroded the Sphinx of Giza Plateau. So, the only possible explanation for the corrosion would be that it was made a long time ago when there was plenty of rain and the temperature was high on Giza Plateau.
Additionally, based on astronomical calculation, from about 11,000 B.C. to 8,810 B.C., during the vernal equinox each year on the earth, the sun rose in the east sky with Leo as background. At that time the Sphinx faced Leo exactly. According to analysis above, archaeologists presumed that the Sphinx was built more than 10,000 years ago.

10,500 abt B. C. -- pyramids were built. This date is the only time in history when the three pyramids line up with the three stars in Orion's belt and when the sphinx actually looks at his own image of Leo in the sky. This is the only time in history that that occured.
?lost civilization of Atlantis.--Egypt isn't the only place where pyramids have been found. The pyramids in Egypt, South America, and the idols of Easter Island are "outposts" or cities of either Atlantis or the great Rama Empire of Northern India. **
note: The "Secret" Room of the Sphinx-- Edgar Cayce predicted that there was a room underneath the left paw of the sphinx in Egypt. He also predicted that the room would be opened from 1996-1998. Now, sonar reading have proven Cayce to be right about the room. Unfortunately, the Egyptian government has the right to open the sphinx room, and they aren't planning to. ?This room holds information about Atlantis or the Rama Empire.

9,000 B. C.The first humans, PaleoIndians, arrive in the Genesee Valley.

6,300 B. C. The approximate date man re-appears in the area.

6,000 B. C.Deciduous plants make their appearance on Long Island.

4,500 B. C.Cedar trees are traced back to this period at Montauk, Long Island.
New York City A second wave of humans inhabit the area.

4,000 B. C. The use of pottery is widespread through the North America continent by this time. ** The Algonquin Indians migrate from Asia.

3,500 B. C. The approximate date the Laurentian Algonquins enter the state. The Lamoka subculture also begins forming around this time.

3,000 to 5,000 B.C. -- pyramids and the sphinx were build

B. C. ^
A. D.

350 AD began Classic Period of the Old Empire Maya: Old Empire The Maya Indians had a pictographic form of writing and were advanced in astronomy and arithmetic. The Classic Period of the Old Empire began about A.D. 350 when several city-states grew up. These states may have included about two million persons.

During the 800's, the Maya abandoned the cities, perhaps because the peasants revolted when the priests tried to introduce new religious practices. In the 900's many inhabitants migrated to Yucatan, where a New Empire flourished.

700-800 Dr. Barry Fell (Harvard University) introduced in his book Saga America – 1980 solid scientific evidence supporting the arrival, centuries before Columbus, of Muslims from North and West Africa. --- Dr. Fell discovered the existence of Muslim schools at valley of Fire, Allan Springs, Logomarsino, Keyhole Canyon, Washoe and Hickison Summit Pass (Nevada), Mesa Verde (Colorado), Mimbres Valley (New Mexico) and Tipper Canoe (Indiana) dating back to 700-800. Engraved on rocks in the old western US, he found texts, diagrams and charts representing the last surviving fragments of what was once a system of schools – at both an elementary and higher levels. The language of instruction was North African Arabic written with old Kufic Arabic script. The subjects of instruction included writing, reading, arithmetic, religion, geography, history, mathematics, astronomy, and sea navigation.

900s AD : Maya: New Empire In the 900's, the Maya of Yucatan developed a high culture with Mexican influences. The militaristic city of Chichen Itza ruled much of Yucatan until about 1200 when a warrior named Hunac Ceel led a revolt against Chichen Itza and established a new capital at Mayapan. In 1450 the rulers of Mayapan were defeated and Yucatan split into several groups.

929-961-- Muslims from Spain and West Africa arrived in the Americas at least five centuries before Columbus. It is recorded, for example that in the mid-tenth century during the rule of the Umayed Caliph Abdur-Rahman III (929-961), Muslims of American origin sailed westward from the Spanish port of Delba (Palos) into the "ocean of darkness and fog." They returned after a long absence with much booty from a "strange and curious land." It is evident that people of Muslim origin are known to have accompanied Columbus and subsequent Spanish explorers to the New World. **

1001 AD -- Leif Erikson's [Iceland] arrival in New World --- The Vikings, under Leif Ericsson, had discovered some of North America [Greenland] almost 500 years earlier. There is speculation about their landings, but the sites often mentioned include Newfoundland and Nova Scotia, where Viking implements have been found dating back to the year 1000. **

1492-- Columbus found the Canary Islands and then San Salvador, in the Bahamas, and claimed possession of them for Spain.
By 1498 he had discovered, and had become viceroy of, other islands, including Hispaniola, the Leeward Islands, St. Kitts, the Virgin Islands, Puerto Rico and Trinidad and also Honduras. The people he met, he called "Indians."
-----Columbus sailed from Palos (Delba), Spain. He was bound for Gomera (Canary Islands) – Gomera is an Arabic word meaning ‘small firebrand’ – there he fell in love with Beatriz Bobadill, daughter of the first captain General of the island (the family name Bobadilla is derived from the Arab Islamic name Abouabdilla). Nevertheless, the Bobadilla clan was not easy to ignore. Another Bobadilla (Francisco), later as the royal commissioner, put Columbus in chains and transferred him from Santo Domingo back to Spain (November 1500). The Bobadilla family was related to Abbadidi dynasty of Seville (1031 – 1091).
----- Columbus had two captains of Muslim origin during his first transatlantic voyage: Martin Alfonso Pinzon was the captain of the Pinta, and his brother Vicente Yanex Pinzon was the captain of the Nina. They were wealthy, expert ship outfitters who helped organise the Columbus expedition and repaired the flagship Santa Maria. They did this at their own expense for both commercial and political reasons. The Pinzon family was related to Abuzayan Muhammad III (1362 – 66), the Moroccan sultan of the Marinid dynasty (1196 – 1465).
---- On October 12, 1492, Columbus landed on a little island in the Bahamas that was called Guanahani by the natives. Renamed San Salvador by Columbus, Guanahani is derived from Mandinka and modified Arabic words. Guana (Ikhwana) means ‘brothers’ and Hani is an Arabic name. Therefore the original name of the island was ‘Hani Brothers.’
---- During his second voyage, Columbus was told by the Indians of Espanola (Haiti), that Black people had been to the island before his arrival. For proof they presented Columbus with the spears of these African Muslims. These weapons were tipped with a yellow metal that the Indians called Guanine, a word of West African Derivation meaning ‘gold alloy.’ Oddly enough, it is related to the Arabic world ‘Ghinaa’ which means ‘Wealth.’ Columbus brought some Guanines back to Spain and had them tested. He learned that the metal was 18 parts gold (56.25 percent), six parts silver (18.75 percent) and eight parts copper (25 percent), the same ratio as the metal produced in African metal shops of Guinea.
---- In 1498, on his third voyage to the New World, Columbus landed in Trinidad. Later, he sighted the South American continent, where some of his crew went ashore and found natives using colourful handkerchiefs of symmetrically woven cotton. Columbus noticed that these handkerchiefs resembled the headdresses and loincloths of Guinea in their colours, style and function. He referred to them as Almayzars. Almayzar is an Arabic word for ‘wrapper,’ ‘cover’ apron’ and or ‘skirting,’ which was the cloth the Moors (Spanish or North African Muslims) imported from West Africa (Guinea) into Morocco, Spain and Portugal.
---- During this voyage, Columbus was surprised that the married women wore cotton panties (bragas) and he wondered where these natives learned their modesty. Hernando Cortez, Spanish conqueror, described the dress of the Indian women as long veils and the dress of Indian men as ‘breechcloth painted in the style of Moorish draperies.' Ferdinand Columbus called the native cotton garments ‘breechclothes of the same design and cloth as the shawls worn by the Moorish women of Granada.’ Even the similarly of the children’s hammocks to those found in North Africa was uncanny.
---- ---- The Erie and the Wenro are dominant residents of the Niagara Frontier.

The last Muslim stronghold in Spain, Granada, fell to the Christians in 1492, just before the Spanish inquisition was launched. To escape persecution, many non-Christians fled or embraced Catholicism. At least two documents imply the presence of Muslims in Spanish America before 1550. Despite the fact that a decree issued in 1539, by Charles V, King of Spain, forbade the grandsons of Muslims who had been burned at the stake to migrate to the West Indies. This decree was ratified in 1543, and an order for the expulsion of all Muslims from overseas Spanish territories was subsequently published. **

C.1500 Iroquois Confederacy formed by the nations inhabiting New York State: Seneca, Mohawk, Oneida, Cayuga, Onondaga.

1534 Jacques Cartier, a French explorer, claims the St. Lawrence River Valley for France

1559 -- Prehistoric Geography-- ** In Geology, a map drafted by a Turkish person, Piri Ibn Haji Memmed, in 1559, showed clearly the coastlines of North and South America, but it was two centuries later when America was discovered by excursionists and mapmakers. (See Additionally, there were also records about America in ancient Tibetan documents that could be dated 3,500 years ago. A South Pole coastline map drafted by a Turkish person, Oronteus Finaeus, in 1532, was very similar to the modern map of Antarctica. (See In addition, he drew the shape of the Antarctic continent accurately when it was not covered by ice 8,000 years ago. But it was not until 1958 A.D. when scientists performed a survey, penetrating the ice cover, that modern people knew the shape of Antarctica covered by ice. All these maps from the 16th century were copied from still older maps.

In 1585 English colonists landed on Roanoke Island off the North Carolina coast, but ships that returned there in 1590 found the settlement abandoned, apparently because of disease or Indian attacks. The fate of "The Lost Colony" remains one of American history's enduring mysteries.

1589- Jose de Acosta published Historia Natural y Moral de las Indias. In this book, he discusses, among other things, the origins of the Native Americans.
--- Jose de Acosta, a Jesuit missionary working with the Native cultures in Mexico and Peru during the 1570's and 1580's publishes Historia Natural y Moral de las Indias- an account of his travels and his musings about a variety of subjects of Native American culture, origins and condition. Jose de Acosta's speculations are remarkable in that he hypothesized that some Native Americans could have arrived in the New World by having been blown there in craft by the wind unwittingly. However, he felt it more likely that the ancestral Native Americans had followed primarily a land route from Asia, with only short stretches of open water to navigate. He conceptualized these few individuals as having prospered and their descendents becoming the mighty civilizations he encountered in his travels. This hypothesis was uncanny as the Bering Strait was not discovered until 1728 by Vitus Bering, a century and a half after de Acosta's speculations. (Fagan, 1987)

1607- The first permanent English settlement in America was built in 1607 on marsh land at Jamestown in southeast Virginia. After surviving some starving winters, the colonists were saved by the arrival of English supply ships.

1612- Tobacco, long grown by the Indians of North America, began to be cultivated by the English settlers there in 1612 for profitable export to the millions who became hooked on it in Europe. Indians also showed the settlers how to grow other exportable crops, including corn, pumpkins, cranberries and tomatoes. And Jamestown became the home of Pocahontas, a daughter of the Pamunkey chief, Powhatan. After first being kidnapped for ransom by English settlers, she was wooed by and married a successful English tobacco planter, a union that brought a period of peace between the colony and Indians.

1620- The celebrated Plymouth settlement in Massachusetts wasn't established until 1620, when separatist English Puritans aboard the Mayflower failed to reach their destination in Virginia territory and landed at Cape Cod instead. A treaty in 1621 with the Wampanoag Indians brought both sides 50 years of local peace. That was not available in other bloody combats with Indians whom pious whites attacked, believing them to be agents of Satan.

Some of the English settlers of the Massachusetts Bay also profited from the agricultural training given them by a few Indians they befriended and excluded from their harsh judgement of other "savages" and "heathens." The settlers, who experienced periodic starving times, learned how to plant and harvest corn, squash and beans and were shown the prime areas to fish and hunt. Still, some colonists favored taking over Indian villages, many of which were devastated by exposure to deadly European diseases, and were determined to drive the Indians away.

Some of that we knew. But how about the city of Cahokia, near what later became St. Louis, Missouri? According to Richard West, Jr., a member of the Cheyenne tribe and a Washington lawyer who is the scholarly, Harvard-educated director of Washington's just-opened National Museum of the American Indian, Cahokia had an Indian population estimated at 50,000, or more than the population then of London, when Englishmen came ashore on the east coast of North America.

1640-1658 - First recorded contact with the Dakota tribes of the Sioux by Jesuits in the area of present-day Green Bay, Wisconsin, and in the forests in southern Minnesota.

1641-- A Russian expedition is believed to have explored the west coast of America this year. It is noteworthy that Okhotsk, Russia on the Pacific coast was established in 1639. **

1647 July 21. An Algonquin war party of the Petite Nation returns from a raid in Iroquoia with six scalps.
Summer. An Iroquois army ravages Huronia.
Summer. A Seneca war party of 300 destroys a village of the Aondirronnons, a nation of the Neutral confederacy.
October. Peace is concluded between the Onondaga and the Hurons and indications are given that the Cayuga and Oneida also wish to make peace with the Hurons. However, the Seneca and the Mohawks continue on the warpath against the Hurons.
The Eries are forced to move inland to escape their unknown enemy to the west.
No Hurons descend to the French settlements this year.

1649 Jul 29 The Hurons, Neutrals and Eries are defeated by the Iroquois.

1650 -- Ouendake (called Huronia by the French) was the original homeland of the Huron occupying a fairly compact area of central Ontario between the southern end of Georgian Bay and Lake Simcoe. After the dispersal of the Huron by the Iroquois in 1650, one group relocated to Lorette (just north of Quebec) where it has remained ever since. The remaining Huron (merged with Tionontati, Erie, and Neutrals) spent the next 50 years wandering as refugees through Wisconsin, Minnesota, and upper Michigan. By 1701 they had moved to the Ohio Valley between present-day Detroit and Cleveland where they were known as the Wyandot. They remained there until they were removed to Kansas during the 1840s. Only one group of Wyandot managed to remain in the Great Lakes, when a small band of the Canadian Wyandot in southwest Ontario was given a reserve near Amherstburg. For the Wyandot relocated to Kansas, problems began with the passage of the Kansas-Nebraska Act (1854) which opened their lands to white settlement. The majority opted for citizenship and allotment and are currently have state recognition as the Wyandot of Kansas. Most still live in the vicinity of Kansas City, Kansas. The more traditional Wyandot left Kansas for northeast Oklahoma after the Civil War to became the Wyandotte Tribe of Oklahoma. **

1653 to 1656-- Erie Indians avoid war with the League of Iroquois in 1653 to 1656. **

1653 Dec 14 The Cat Nation (Eries) send 30 ambassadors to New York's Senecas to renew peace. An Erie accidentally kills a Seneca during a lacrosse game. The Senecas kill 25 of the ambassadors; 5 escape. The Erie burn a Seneca village. They ambush the rear guard of a Iroquois war party, killing 80 of the Indians. Erie scouts capture the Iroquois leader Annencraos, murder him. The Iroquois will raise 1800 warriors, surround the Erie fortress of Rique (Rigue), overcome 3-4,000 warriors and take the fort.
--- By 1653, the Neutral Indians had all but ceased to exist as an Indian Nation. Some of the remaining Neutrals were adopted by the Seneca while others joined the Huron's at Mackinac.

1654, the Erie Indians lived in villages along the south side of Lake Erie. The Erie Indians attacked a Seneca Village and intercepted a Seneca war party returning from a raid upon the Huron Indians. In retaliation, the Seneca sent 1,800 warriors against the Eries only to be beaten back. Included in those Indians captured was Chief Annenraes of the Onondaga tribe who was burned to death at the stake at an Erie Indian village.
1654 -- Western Iroquois attacked and destroyed two Erie fortified villages

In 1655, the Seneca Indians attacked in massive numbers and slaughtered the Erie Indians. This battle marked the end of the Erie Indians along Lake Erie. **
1655 ----Erie Indians defeated decisively by the entire Iroquois Confederacy. Thereafter, Western New York is occupied predominately by Senecas

1656 -- However, the Erie inflicted heavy losses on the Iroquois during these battles. It took the Seneca, Cayuga, and Onondaga until 1656 before the Erie were defeated. Many survivors were incorporated into the Seneca to replace their losses in the war, and the Erie ceased to exist as a separate tribe. The Erie, however, did not entirely disappear at this time. French map-makers during the next 50 years continued to place the Nation du Chat on their maps as occupying a large area south and west of the Iroquois. 1656 Nov 24 A party of 50 French arrive at Onondaga Lake, where they help six Jesuits establish a mission. ** The last 600 Erie surrender to the Iroquois. Unfortunately, no European explored the Ohio Valley until the 1670s, and they did not find any Erie (or anyone else for that matter). Some of the Erie, Neutrals, Tionontati, and Huron escaped (the Wyandot are the best example). Most of these were small groups, but some may have been fairly large. It took the Iroquois many years to track these people down, and the last group of Erie (southern Pennsylvania) did not surrender to the Iroquois until 1680.

1660.—In an estimate of the strength of the Five Nations at this date, the Mohawks were credited with not more than five hundred warriors, the Oneidas with less than one hundred, the Cayugas and Onondagas with three hundred each, and the Senecas with not more than one thousand, while the greater part of their fighting men were a medley of many tribes, Hurons, Petuns, Neutrals, Eries, etc. (Rel. 1660: Queb. ed., 6–7; Clev. ed XLV, 207).

The Mississauga Indians gradually moved into those areas left vacant by the Neutral and Erie Indians.
---------- 1660, a writer, reports that their (Iroquois) entire force had been reduced to twenty-two hundred warriors, while of these not more than twelve hundred were of the true Iroquois stock. The rest was a medley of adopted prisoners,--Hurons, Neutrals, Eries, and Indians of various Algonquin tribes. [ 1 ] Still their aggressive spirit was unsubdued. These incorrigible warriors pushed their murderous raids to Hudson's Bay, Lake Superior, the Mississippi, and the Tennessee; they were the tyrants of all the intervening wilderness; and they remained, for more than half a century, a terror and a scourge to the afflicted colonists of New France.

[ 1 Relation, 1660, 6, 7 (anonymous). Le Jeune says, "Their victories have so depopulated their towns, that there are more foreigners in them than natives. At Onondaga there are Indians of seven different nations permanently established; and, among the Senecas, of no less than eleven." (Relation, 1657, 34.) These were either adopted prisoners, or Indians who had voluntarily joined the Iroquois to save themselves from their hostility. They took no part in councils, but were expected to join war-parties, though they were usually excused from fighting against their former countrymen. The condition of female prisoners was little better than that of slaves, and those to whom they were assigned often killed them on the slightest pique. ]

1664 King Charles II, the British monarch, gives territory, which included Buffalo, to James, Duke of York. At the time the entire Western New York region is inhabited by thousands of American Indians of the Neuter, Erie and Seneca nations. Baron LaHonton marks the Buffalo site on his 1687 exploration map as "Fort Suppose."

1669.—Father Frémin mentions the presence of Neutral Indians among the Senecas, and informs us that the village of Gandongaraé had no inhabitants other than Neutrals, Onnontiogas, and Hurons proper (Rel. 1670: Queb. ed., 69, 2; Clev. ed LIV, 81).

1671.—In the village of the Iroquois Christians, then called St-Xavier des Prés, which stood at that time about three miles below the Lachine rapids, on the south bank of the St. Lawrence, there were, besides Iroquois, Hurons, and Andastes, a number of Neutrals (Rel. 1671: Queb. ed., 12–13; Clev. ed LV, 33–35).
---- This seems to be the latest mention in the old records of the Attiwandaronk, once the most numerous of the three great Huron tribes, and occupying the most extensive and fertile territory. Their name was obliterated, but their blood still courses through the veins of many a reputed Iroquois or Huron.
----Migration to Quebec ------ The writers of the Relations have left us more than one retrospect of the wanderings of the Hurons. These may be found, in order of time, in Relation 1656: Quebec edition, 41, 2; Cleveland edition XLII, 235;— 1660: Quebec, 2, 2; 14, 1; Cleveland XLV, 187, 243; — 1672: Quebec, 35–36; Cleveland LVI, 115;—Girault's memoir of 1762, Cleveland, LXX, 205. The most helpful in the matter of research are the last two mentioned, the retrospect of 1672, for the migrations in the West, and that of Father Girault for the Hurons of Lorette.

1680, French explorer, Rene-Robert Chevalier, Sieur de La Salle wrote of meeting the Mississauga Indians.

1722, Tuscarora Indians lived on a reservation on the east bank of the Niagara River. The Seneca Indians adopted the Tuscarora and O'Neida Indians. Both tribes became members of the Iroquois League of Six Nations.

1745, the French forced the Mississauga Indians to the east side of the Niagara River. The Mississauga's were granted temporary admittance into the Iroquois Nation. During the war between the French and the British, the Mississauga Indians supported the French and the Iroquois supported the British. During the American Revolution, the Mississauga Indians supported the British.
After the American Revolution, the Mississauga Indians settled along the banks of the Chippeway River (Village of Chippawa). 1788, nearly 600 Mississauga Indians lived at Queenston. 1745 Are the Hurons Erie or a sub-tribe as Father Pierre Potier, whose works, still in manuscript, appealed to as the weightiest authority in Huron linguistics, at the end of his "Elementa Grammaticæ Huronicæ" (1745) gives a list of the names of thirty-two North American tribes with their Huron equivalents, and in this list the term Ouendat stands for Huron. It is the correct appellation, and was used as such by the Huron themselves. The proper English pronunciation is Wendat, but the modified form of Wyandot has prevailed. -- Catholic Encyclopedia **

1775 - The Continental Congress establishes a Committee on Indian Affairs, appointing commissioners to create peace treaties with the Indians.

1780's – Thomas Jefferson conducts one of the first systematic archaeological excavations in North America.
Thomas Jefferson was interested in all manner of natural history as well as his pursuits in politics, agriculture, architecture, history and the sciences. Jefferson collected Indian artifacts and studied Indian ethnography and languages. About 1780 he began to excavate a mound near his Virginia estate. He attended to this task in an organized manner and was able to observe stratified human remains. He concluded that this particular mound was an ancient Indian burial place. This was perhaps the first systematic archaeological excavation in North America.( Fagan 1987), (Willey and Sabloff 3rd Ed. 1993)

1780's - 1790's – Hundreds of mounds were discovered as colonists began to expand Westward.
The westward expansion of European American colonists over the Allegheny mountains saw the discovery of hundreds of mounds. Settlers looking for treasure pillaged many of these. The human remains and associated grave offerings contained no gold but did contain ornaments of copper and mica, and the remnants of stone weapons unlike those in use by the current indigenous tribes in the area. By the 1850's a vast network of mounds had been discovered in an area from the Great Lakes to Nebraska and south to Florida. Almost none of these mounds were systematically excavated. (Fagan, 1987)

1795 -- Erie City, PA founded in 1795 after purchase of the Erie Triangle. ; name derived from Eriez Indians that spoke the Iroquois language **

Early 1800's – Caleb Atwater presented the first theories stating that the mounds that were being discovered and some of which he had excavated were not built by the current Native Americans or by their ancestors.
Caleb Atwater, a Circleville Ohio Postmaster, surveyed and excavated a large number of mounds. Atwater discovered hundreds of burials with many artifacts in excellent condition. He attributed the mounds to non-Indian Asians who he believed pre-dated the Biblical flood. This was a common belief of the time. He believed the modern Native Americans of the area were also Asian by decent but were more recently arrived, long after the abandonment of the area by the moundbuilders. (Fagan 1987) (Willey and Sabloff 3rd.Ed.1993)

1803 - Louisiana Purchase brings a greater number of trading posts into Indian Territory. As a result, fur trading becomes an important part of Oglala Indian life, expanding the Lakota influence as far west as the Big Horn Mountains in Wyoming and south to the Platte River in Nebraska.

1804 - The Sioux and other tribes encounter the Lewis and Clark expedition.

1817 - American traders began to compete with Native American tribes for the buffalo fur business.
1817-1829 – Dr. James H. McColloh published “Researches in America,” in which he states that the Native Americans were the ones who created the mounds.
Dr. James H. McColloh, publishes "Researches in America," in 1817 and "Researches Philosophical and Antiquarian Concerning Aboriginal History of America" in1829. McColloh's primary contribution was that he believed that the moundbuilders and the Indians were one and the same race and that the modern Native Americans were perfectly capable of having created the mounds in times past. (Willey and Sabloff 3rd. Ed. 1993)

1824 - The U.S. Secretary of War establishes the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA), which does not receive congressional authorization until 1934.

1825 - A treaty is established between the U.S. and the Oglala branch of the Teton Sioux (Lakota) regarding fur trade, signed for the Oglala by Standing Buffalo (aka Standing Bull). The 1825 treaty states that the Sioux and Oglala "...reside within the territorial limits of the United States, acknowledge their supremacy, and claim their protection. The said bands also admit the right of the United States to regulate all trade..."

1830 - The Indian Removal Act forces Native Americans living east of the Mississippi River to abandon their homes and move into the newly established Indian Territory to the west. The Cherokee tribe resists and sues the U.S. They are granted the right to stay on their land in two key Supreme Court cases, however, President Andrew Jackson ignores the court order and sends troops in to force Cherokee removal.

1834 - Four thousand Oglala people relocate to Fort Laramie to boost their fur trade with white people.

1838 - Over 18,000 Cherokees are forcibly removed from their land and resettled west of the Mississippi, in what is referred to as the "Trail of Tears."

1839 – Samuel George Morton conducts scientific studies that also point to the Native Americans as being the moundbuilders.
--- Albert Koch discovered mastodon bones associated with a stone artifact.
--- Henry Rowe Schoolcraft became another proponent of ancestral Native Americans as moundbuilders. Samuel George Morton, a well known physical anthropologist, begins to discredit the prevailing "lost race of the moundbuilders" hypothesis in "Crania Americana" of 1839. Morton had taken measurements of eight skulls from mounds and compared them with skulls from recently deceased modern Native Americans. He concluded they were of a single race, thus detracting from the separate race hypothesis. He did however give the supporters of the idea of an earlier and more civilized race an out. He differentiated the two groups along cultural grounds and stated they were of two families of the same race and named them "Toltecan" and "Barbarous," leaving open to argument the notion of a higher degree of civilization having existed at the time of the moundbuilders.(Fagan,1987), (Willey and Sabloff, 3rd. Ed. 1993)
--- Albert Koch discovered mastodon bones associated with a stone artifact. Neither he nor anyone else at the time could believe that the artifact and the bones of an extinct species were contemporaneous. After exhibiting the bones in a sort of traveling show, Koch sold the bones to the British Museum and the artifact to a private German collector. (Fagan, 1987), (Willey and Sabloff, 3rd. Ed. 1993)
--- Henry Rowe Schoolcraft, publishes his findings from the Grave Creek Mound excavation he had recently concluded in Ohio. Schoolcraft became another proponent of the ancestral Native Americans as moundbuilders. Earlier in his career he had held the opposing view but his work at Grave Creek had led him to see continuities between the archaeological evidence and modern native tribes. He further came to believe that the mounds themselves required no advanced civilization to effect their construction. His six volume treatise -"Historical and Statistical Information Respecting the History, Condition and Prospects of the Indian Tribes of the United States" (1851-1857) were as long and inviting as their title suggests and were read by few at the time or since.(Willey and Sabloff, 3rd.Ed. 1993)

1840 – Charles Lyell Publishes “Principles of Geology” Charles Lyell publishes "Principles of Geology," the foundation of modern geology as well as establishing the precepts of stratigraphy and relative dating so essential to the development of modern archaeology. Lyell was also one of the first proponents of uniformitarianism, the idea that change occurs gradually and that processes that have occurred in the past are likely to be ongoing processes today. This influenced all of the natural sciences, including anthropology. (Encarta Encyclopedia, 1997), (Willey and Sabloff 3rd. Ed.1993),
1840s - An increasing flow of emigrants to Oregon and California bring cholera, smallpox, and measles to the Indians as well as accelerated buffalo hunting for the fur trade.

1845 – Squire and Davis began studying Ohio mounds. They felt that the mounds could not have been built by Native Americans and the debate was renewed as the who built the mounds.
The first publication by the Smithsonian was "Ancient Monuments of the Mississippi Valley."
The American Ethnological Society commissioned Ephraim Squire to undertake a study of the mounds of the Ohio valley. Squire was a small town Ohio journalist, traveler and later, a diplomat. Squire formed a liaison with Edwin Hamilton Davis, a Chillicothe, Ohio physician.For the next two years they surveyed, mapped, excavated and documented mounds in the area. Their site plan work was careful and accurate and serves to guide visitors around the Ohio mound groups today. They worked under the assumption that no existing knowledge was to be used in their study that could prejudice their work or its conclusions. They looked at the mounds as if they were the very first to examine them. The newly formed Smithsonian Institution published their 300 page monograph, “Ancient Monuments of the Mississippi Valley” in 1848. This was the very first volume produced by the Smithsonian Institution. Squire and Davis believed the Native Americans were incapable of having the sophistication to have created the mounds and believed the moundbuilders to have been a different race. Squire also explored mounds in New York and in 1849 the Smithsonian published this work(Squire, 1849)(Pagan, 1987), (Willey and Sabloff, 3rd. Ed. 1993).

1846 – Smithsonian Institution is founded
Smithsonian Institution is founded with funds bequeathed by James Smithson. In 1829 English scientist James Smithson left his fortune to his nephew with the provision that should his nephew have no heir, the bulk of the estate would transfer to The United States of America, to found at Washington, under the name of the Smithsonian Institution, an establishment for the increase and diffusion of knowledge." His reasons for the gift are obscure but he is quoted as having said, "Every man is a valuable member of society who by his observations, researches and experiments procures knowledge for men." With considerable debate, the Congress, on behalf of President Andrew Jackson formally accepted the behest in 1836 and set in motion the steps to secure it and decide how best to found the institution. Legal battles in England continued until 1838 when the British court awarded the estate to the United States. The estate was sold, converted to gold coin and brought to the United States. The U.S. Mint melted the coins and derived a value of $508,318 U.S. dollars. (Smithsonian Institution, 1998)

1848 - The California Gold Rush begins, increasing Western expansion across former Native American lands. As a result of the white migration, the number of California Indians is reduced from 120,000 in 1850 to 20,000 in 1880. Changes brought on by gold miners affects the way Indians had traditionally procured their food, thus they begin raiding mining camps for food, and the miners retaliate with violence. By 1851, the California governor supports a policy of Indian extermination in response to problems caused to miners.
1848 – William H. Emory publishes the first descriptions of archaeological sites in the southwest.
William H. Emory publishes the first descriptions of archaeological sites in the American southwest.-"Notes of a Military Reconnaissance From Ft. Leavenworth, in Missouri, to San Diego, in California Including Parts of the Arkansas, Del Norte, and Gila Rivers." 30th Congress, 1st session, senate executive Docket 7. Washington D.C. 1848. (Willey and Sabloff, 3rd. Ed. 1993)

1849 - The U.S. government purchases Fort Laramie from the American Fur Company and brings in troops.

1850, a Mississauga Indian was reported to have killed the last deer on Goat Island. early 1800's, Delaware Indians lived upon the banks of the Cattaraugus Creek.

1851 - Fort Laramie Treaty of 1851 between the U.S. and various Indian tribes describes the tribes' territories and allows U.S. passage across the land in exchange for payment. The U.S. establishes Fort Defiance in Arizona on lands considered sacred by the Navajo. Violent confrontations begin between the U.S. and the Navajo.

1855 - On September 3, Colonel William Harney leads 1,300 soldiers in the massacre of an entire Brulé village in response to Indians killing 30 soldiers, who were killed in retribution for the murder of Chief Conquering Bear in a dispute over a cow.

1856 – Samuel Haven wrote a review of the state of North American archaeology. In it, he published his views on the origins of the moundbuilders.
Samuel Haven of Massachusetts, the Librarian of the American Antiquarian Society, set about writing an exhaustive and important review of the state of North American archaeology. He carefully collated, read and reviewed all the literature available at the time. Haven’s work was a conscientiously reasoned, description and logical discussion of the works he reviewed. This was in stark contrast to the speculative nature of most other works of the time. He concluded that the hypothesis of an ancient, lost, moundbuilder race was inconsistent with the evidence and was untenable. Haven’s new professional archaeological perspective was to be the hallmark of the period to follow.(Fagan, 1987)(Willey and Sabloff, 3rd. Ed. 1993)

1859 - Charles Darwin publishes "On the Origin of Species," and along with Alfred Russel Wallace shook the roots of modern thought regarding evolution and adaptation. Following from the work of Jean Baptist Pierre Lemarck and Thomas Robert Malthus, Darwin set the stage for a new perspective for physical anthropology that could incorporate the concepts of adaptation and change in response to the environment. (Fagan, 1987), (Willey and Sabloff, 3rd. Ed. 1993)

1860-1868 - Increased attacks on civilian wagon trains, led largely by Cheyenne Chief Roman Nose, causes the U.S. to provide military escorts to emigrants traveling to Oregon through the Powder River Basin, from the Black Hills (known to the Indians as Paha Sapa) on the east to the Big Horn Mountains in Wyoming on the west.

1866 - Harvard's Peabody Museum was founded through the efforts of O.C. Marsh, nephew of George Peabody. Marsh was influenced by Charles Lyell to take up archaeology in America. He participated in excavations in Ohio and was the prime mover behind Peabody's gift to Harvard University. (Willey and Sabloff 3rd. Ed. 1993)

1861 - The U.S. Civil War begins. Many Native American tribes side with the Confederates, who promise to respect Indian sovereignty. At the end of the war, the U.S. punishes the tribes by forcing them to cede (transfer) land.

1862 - The Homestead Act encourages a flood of settlers to move through Indian lands. August 18 sees the start of the Sioux Uprising (or Santee War) in Minnesota, driving many Sioux westward.

1863 - U.S. General Patrick Conner leads massacre of 278 Paiute Indians in their village in Nevada. 1863- Bozeman Trail Opened

1864 - Massacre at Sand Creek on November 29 results in over 130 Indians dead and mutilated. Legendary trapper, scout, soldier and Indian agent Kit Carson forces the surrender of Navajos, and thousands of Navajos must walk 350 miles eastward (called the "Long Walk") from their home in Arizona to Fort Sumner, New Mexico, where they remain in disease-ridden imprisonment until 1868.

1865 - Escalation of the Plains War between the U.S. military and the Sioux and Cheyenne. Ultimately, the Sioux under Red Cloud and Sitting Bull, and the Cheyenne under Roman Nose and Dull Knife, fight and harass the U.S. troops and drive them out of the territory. Nine treaties signed at the end of the year signal the supposed end of the Plains War, despite the fact that none of the war chiefs has signed.

1866 Fetterman Massacre 1866 - General Sheridan takes command of U.S. forces in the West, stating the policy of exterminating the buffalo herds crucial to Indian survival: "Kill the buffalo and you kill the Indians."

1866-1868 - Red Cloud leads the Sioux and several allied tribes in all-out war against the U.S. military (known as "Red Cloud's War") to close the Bozeman Trail that passed through buffalo hunting grounds in the Big Horn Territory from northeast Wyoming into Montana. In the 1866 Fetterman Massacre, 80 U.S. troops are lured out of Fort Phil Kearny and slaughtered by Indians led by Red Cloud and Crazy Horse. Eventually, the U.S. admits defeat and sues for peace, the only time Indian leaders defeat the United States in an extended all-out war.
1868 Fort Laramie Treaty
1868 Treaty of Fort Bridger
1868, Jeffries Wyman, having excavated shell mounds in the coastal areas of the southeastern United States and the St. Johns River in Florida (Wyman 1868, 1875) became the first curator of the Peabody Museum. Wyman realized shell mounds were not modern and was able to discern stratigraphy and local variation in the shell mounds. (Willey and Sabloff, 3rd. Ed. 1993)

1867 - The Treaty of Medicine Lodge between the U.S. and the Cheyenne and Arapaho forces the two tribes to move to a reservation in Indian Territory, on land that was ceded by Indian tribes to the U.S. after the end of the Civil War.

1868 - Fort Laramie Treaty of 1868 between the U.S. and the Indians creates the Great Sioux Reservation and reaffirms Sioux hunting rights. Renowned military leader General Armstrong Custer leads an attack on unarmed Cheyenne at the Washita River, killing mostly woman and children.

1869 Indian Appropriation Act

1869 - The Transcontinental Railroad cuts across Native American lands.

1870 - In January, in the Massacre of the Marias, U.S. Soldiers slaughter 173 Blackfeet men, women and children on the Marias River in Montana, retaliation for the death of a white man and the wounding of his son. Later that year, due to disagreements about the implementation of the 1868 Fort Laramie Treaty, Red Cloud and Spotted Tail negotiate with President Ulysses S. Grant in Washington, D.C. It is reaffirmed that the Sioux (and other tribes) could live in the Powder River country, as well as hunt in it.

1872-1875 - The Lakota, with their Cheyenne and Arapaho allies, drive the Crow out of eastern Montana because of intertribal competition for the shrinking hunting grounds for buffalo.

1872 - In August, two U.S. railroad survey teams, each accompanied by about 500 troops, head into eastern Montana and are attacked by bands led by Sitting Bull and Crazy Horse, with few casualties, but severe consequences. General William Sherman testified before Congress in March: "This railroad is a national enterprise, and we are forced to protect the men during its survey and construction, through, probably, the most warlike nation of Indians on this continent, who will fight for every foot of the line."

1873 - In August, the Red Cloud and Spotted Tail agencies move to the White River in northwest Nebraska next to Fort Robinson, living mostly on government rations. That same summer, an Oglala hunting party encounters some white buffalo hunters, who kill Whistler, a famous and friendly chief, and two other Oglalas. The Lakota and Pawnee escalate their ongoing war over the dwindling number of buffalo when Lakotas attack a Pawnee camp, killing 50 men, women and children and stealing their buffalo meat and skins. The Lakota also fight with the Crow tribe over hunting grounds in Montana. In addition, a skirmish erupts between Hunkpapa, Oglala, Miniconjous, Sans Arcs, and Cheyennes, led overall by Sitting Bull, and a railroad survey team led by General Custer, with a large military escort. Miners looking for gold in the Black Hills are frequently attacked by Indians.

1874 Gold in Black Hills 1874 - Custer leads a large expedition, including 1,000 troops, into the Black Hills to explore and set up military posts. The expedition, which also includes geologists, finds gold and publicizes their discovery, leading to a massive influx of prospectors to the area. In September, the U.S. military are ordered to stop miners from trespassing on the Sioux Reservation.

1875 - There are 15,000 miners in the Black Hills at the beginning of the year. In spring, Red Cloud, Spotted Tail and other chiefs are summoned to Washington to meet with President Grant and discuss the Black Hills. The Indians argue among themselves about how to deal with the situation and nothing is resolved. The U.S. Senate Commission visits the Nebraska Agencies to offer $6 million for purchase of the Black Hills, but the Indians refuse. By November, President Grant abandons any attempts to keep the miners out of the Black Hills, ultimately reversing the U.S. position by protecting the miners and settlers. On December, 6, 1875, the U.S. Commissioner on Indian Affairs orders the Lakota onto the reservation by a Jan. 31, 1876, deadline, threatening to treat them as "hostiles" and have them arrested. Some Sioux, scattered during the harsh winter, don't receive the order.
1875 Frederick Ward Putnam succeeded Wyman as Peabody Museum curator and maintained this post until 1909. Putnam was also a Peabody Professor of American Archaeology and Ethnology from 1887 until 1909. He was a leading figure of the classificatory descriptive period as an excavator, sponsor and administrator. Putnam helped found the Field Museum of Natural History in Chicago and anthropology departments at the University of California, Berkeley and at the American Museum of Natural History. His primary interests included the mounds of the American Midwest and the search for late Pleistocene people in North America. Putnam procured the Great Serpent Mound for the Peabody museum and excavated there. (Fagan, 1987), (Willey and Sabloff 3rd. Ed. 1993)

1876 Battle of Little Bighorn

1876 - On February 1, the Secretary of the Interior relinquishes jurisdiction over all so-called "hostile" Sioux - meaning those off the reservation lands - to the War Department. The Army is ordered in for the 1876 War that ensues, which includes the famous Battle of the Little Big Horn. In October, the Treaty of 1876 between the U.S. and the Sioux Nation of Indians, the Northern Arapaho and Cheyenne Indians is signed, despite protests of the majority of the tribes, and enacted into law by Congress in February the following year.
1876 – C.C. Abbott studied the Trenton Gravels where stone tools had been discovered.
C.C. Abbott was sponsored by Putnam to study the Trenton Gravels of New Jersey based on stone tools that "looked early" that had been discovered there. The desire to prove the great antiquity of people in the New World had been stimulated by the discovery of stone tools in France dated from the Paleolithic. These, combined with the revelations provided by Darwinian evolution and its implications, served to override the old limits set by the theological views of the past. North American quaternary geology and especially glaciology were poorly described or understood at this time. The times and extent of glaciation were not yet known, so the end of the Pleistocene, so crucial to understanding human habitation in North America was also obscure. (Fagan, 1987), (Willey and Sabloff, 3rd.Ed. 1993)

1877 Chief Joseph's Surrender 1877 - The Wolf Mountain Battle occurs in January. Crazy Horse is killed at Fort Robinson in September, after volunteering to come to the fort to discuss ongoing conflicts. That same month, Red Cloud and Spotted Tail travel to Washington to meet with President Rutherford B. Hayes, receiving his promise that they could choose their own permanent settlement site within the reservation, which now excluded the Black Hills.

1878 - The Pine Ridge and Rosebud agencies (later made into reservations) are created in June.

1879 - The Carlisle Indian School is founded in Pennsylvania, in an aggressive U.S. government campaign to "civilize" Indian children. Children from reservations across the West are sent to the school in order to assimilate into white culture. This assimilation includes cutting their hair, burning their clothing and forcing them to wear European American dress. They are forbidden to speak their Native language, and punishment for infractions is severe. The school is a breeding ground for disease, and many children die there.

1881 Publication of A Centure of Dishonor

1881 - Chief Sitting Bull and 186 of his followers return from Canada and surrender at Fort Buford. The chief is imprisoned for two years instead of being pardoned, as promised.

1882 – Cyrus Thomas and William Henry Holmes worked under the direction of John Wesley Powell
1882 - John Wesley Powell, director of the Smithsonian Bureau of Ethnology, hired Cyrus Thomas, a minister turned entomologist and archaeologist, to study the moundbuilders at the direction of and with funding from the United States congress. Believing the moundbuilders were part of an unbroken tradition of cultural development leading to modern Indians, Powell sent Thomas to validate his assertions. After a seven year study of fieldwork and hundreds of excavations between Florida and Nebraska, Thomas and a large team of researchers proved beyond all doubt that the moundbuilders were ancestral Native Americans. By using the geological approach of stratigraphic analysis and making careful observations and well documented accounts the results were widely accepted. (Fagan, 1987), (Willey and Sabloff, 3rd. Ed. 1993)
Cyrus Thomas of the Smithsonian Bureau of Ethnology dismantles the "lost moundbuilder race" hypothesis in 1894 by his efforts through the Division of Mounds Exploration begun in 1882. Thomas had also begun by ascribing to the "lost race" hypothesis but his field work transformed him into an authority and champion of the opposing view. The Bureau of Ethnology under John Wesley Powell became the leading institutional advocate favoring the view that the ancestors of modern Native Americans had built the mounds. (Fagan, 1987)(Willey and Sabloff, 3rd.Ed. 1993)
William Henry Holmes, with a strong background in geology and with considerable work with the United States Geological Survey in the western United States, was commissioned by Powell to conduct studies in archaeology. From 1882 to 1898 he produced a series of works on aboriginal ceramics of the eastern United States, his systematic typological classifications became a model for later research. In 1887 Powell diverted him to look for further evidence of Paleolithic man in North America. This was a controversial subject at the time. After years of travel and investigation he found no evidence of any kind, much to the disappointment of supporters such as Charles Abbott and Frederick Putnam. William Holmes succeeded Powell as chief of he Smithsonian Bureau of Ethnology in 1902. (Fagan, 1987)(Willey and Sabloff,3rd. Ed. 1993)

1887Dawes Severalty Act

1887 - The Dawes Act divides tribal land into individual allotted tracts, destroying tribal relations in an attempt to promote assimilation into white culture. Those tracts not allotted to individual Native families could be leased to whites, further reducing the size of Sioux lands. From 1887 to 1920, Indian reservation lands shrink to one half their pre-allotment size.

1888 - Red Cloud invites the Jesuits to the reservation to establish a school for Lakota children in order to avoid sending children off the reservation.

1889 Ghost Dance 1889 Oklahoma opens to Settlement

1890 Battle of Wounded Knee 1890 Chief Sitting Bulls Dies 1890 - Sitting Bull is killed in his home while being arrested for allowing his people to participate in the Ghost Dance. On December 29, the Wounded Knee massacre occurs when Miniconjou Indians under Spotted Elk (aka Big Foot), returning from the Ghost Dance via Pine Ridge, are searched and disarmed by U.S. soldiers. After a single shot kills a U.S. officer, the soldiers go on a rampage and kill the chief and over 300 Indian men, women and children, many running for their lives.

1892 – chronologies of the Rio Grande region in New Mexico are done.-- Adolf Bandelier studies chronologies ofRio Grande regional archaeology in New Mexico, and along with other researchers such as Edgar L. Hewett and Walter Hough make some fairly accurate predictions of sequences there. They lay the groundwork for later work done by Nels C. Nelson and A.V. Kidder. (Willey and Sabloff,3rd. Ed. 1993)

1894 - The U.S. Army imprisons "hostile" Hopi leaders in military facilities on Alcatraz Island.

1898 - The Curtis Act re-affirms allotment of tribal lands on Indian reservations and ends tribal sovereignty in the territories.

1903 – Ales Hrdlicka dominated physical anthropology, promoting professionalism. He also made it difficult to propose theories about Native Americans before 4,000 years ago.--- Ales Hrdlicka, a Czech born physical anthropologist joins the United States National Museum and begins to study virtually every North American site and reviews all the data pertinent to early remains up to the beginning of the 20th century. Hrdlicka becomes curator of the Division of Physical Anthropology in 1910 and from this position dominates physical anthropology for the next two decades. Hrdlicka is relentless in his rejection of any and all early dates ascribed to finds. He still believed that, at some time in the future, evidence would be revealed that would allow human origins in North America to reach back to 10,000 years. His rejection of finds dated beyond 4,000 years became almost a fore drawn conclusion. Hrdlicka's dogmatic rejection of findings and his blistering attacks on research supporting opposing views caused considerable intimidation for workers in the discipline. To be fair, Hrdlicka was just as relentless in his criticism of sloppy archaeological techniques and untested hypothesis. By the end of his tenure however the very question of early man in North America was avoided by nearly all researchers for fear of damage to their careers. Archaeology had by this time become nearly two dimensional, fixed in a temporal horizon of only 4,000 years in depth. The contributions of Hrdlicka are important to the discipline as a whole in that the era that preceded Hrdlicka was one of wild speculation and inappropriate field techniques and interpretive strategies. His insistence on rigor and validation forced a new professionalism on research which was essential to meaningful work later on.(Fagan,1987), (Willey and Sabloff, 3rd. Ed. 1993)

1906 - The Act for the Preservation of American Antiquities makes excavation, theft or destruction of historic or prehistoric ruins or objects of antiquity on federal lands a criminal offense. Dead Indians and Indian artifacts are defined as "archeological resources," thus considered federal property.
1906- Antiquities Act of 1906.
1907, Max Uhle studied cultural change in the San Francisco Bay Area. The Antiquities Act of 1906 was an Act for the Preservation of American Antiquities. This law was enacted by the legislature of the United States and provided for a fine of $500 for the unauthorized excavation, injury, destruction or appropriation of historic or pre-historic sites. This was the first law of its kind. The Act further provided for the designation of sites by the President and the management of sites to the Department of the Interior. Permits for the study of sites by bona fide institutions were to be evaluated and granted by the Departments of the Interior, Agriculture and War depending on the federal jurisdiction wherein the site was located. These departments were to issue, publish and make public uniform rules and regulations for the purpose of carrying out the provisions of the Act. (Antiquities Act of 1906)

1907 - Oklahoma becomes the 46th state, opening the former Indian Territory to further white settlement.
1907 Max Uhle was noted primarily for his extensive Peruvian archaeology, however under Alfred Kroeber at the University of California, Berkeley, he excavated the Emeryville shell mound in the San Francisco bay area. Uhle applied rigorous stratigraphic controls and good documentation to arrive at a chronology. His interpretation of cultural change was rejected by Kroeber however, as their definitions of cultural change differed. The degree of change noted by Uhle would, by today's standards be called micro change, and as such were well ahead of their time. Kroeber did not accept the degree of cultural change exhibited by the data as being significant. (Willey and Sabloff, 3rd. Ed. 1993)
Alfred L. Kroeber, head of the anthropology department at the University of California introduced the concept of seriation. Kroeber also helped to develop a more refined seriational analysis of archaeological data. This brought the methodology of archaeology in line with cultural study and modern evolutionary thought as distinguished from pure stratigraphy in the geologic sense. (Kroeber, Zuni Potsherds, Anthropological Papers of the Museum of Natural History vol. 18, pt. 1,3-37. New York 1916) as cited by (Willey and Sabloff, 3rd. Ed. 1993)

1910 - Plains tribes, revive the traditional Sun Dance, the communal religious ceremony conducted by many of the Plains Indians who hunted buffalo in the 18th and 19th centuries.

1916- Nels C. Nelson developed a southwestern United States chronology
1916 - Nels C. Nelson works extensively on a southwestern United States chronology and establishes a firm base for A.V Kidder to make use of the modern statigraphic method on a large scale. From Nelson’s work at Pecos, New Mexico in 1915,Kidder went on to extend and integrate the statigraphic method into a regional strategy of cultural and chronological study. Kidder published "An Introduction to the Study of Southwestern Archaeology, with a Preliminary Account of the Excavations at Pecos" in 1924. (Willey and Sabloff, 3rd. Ed.1993)

1924 - Congress passes the Indian Citizenship Act, granting U.S. citizenship to Native Americans.
1924 -- ** The first discovery of an early hominid species in Africa was by Raymond Dart, pictured at left, who found this well preserved skull of a juvenile in South Africa in 1924. His discovery led to an intense focus on Africa as the probable site of human origins and early development, as Charles Darwin had earlier predicted. Dart named this newly discovered species Australopthicus africanus, or "Southern Ape of Africa." This speciman of a child, often called the "Taung Baby," after the site in which it was discovered, preserves remarkable physical details. Some of the permanent teeth are not yet descended, suggesting an age of about 8 years at the time of death. An imprint of the brain case is preserved in limestone, and the foramen magnum, the opening in the skull through which the spinal cord attaches to the brain, indicates that this creature walked upright like human beings.

1925 – extinct bison bones and a spear point were examined that point to the existence of Paleo Indians. Jesse Figgins, Director of the Colorado Museum of Natural History, is given extinct bison bones and a spear point discovered 17 years prior by George McJunkin in Folsum, New Mexico. The bison remains were dated from the end of the last glaciation and the associated projectile point was telling evidence for Paleolithic man in the New World. Figgins invited scholars to Folsum to see for themselves. More evidence was found in-situ and by 1928 Paleo Indians were believed to have existed 10,000 or more years into the past in North America. (Fagan, 1987), (Willey and Sabloff, 3rd. Ed. 1993)

1928 - Harold S. Gladwin and Winifred Gladwin published procedures for excavations Harold S. Gladwin and Winifred Gladwin began a series of publications outlining procedures of site descriptions, methodology and nomenclature as well as publications regarding the excavations they had undertaken at the Casa Grande and Snaketown Hohokam sites in Arizona . (Gladwin 1928, 1928a, 1928b, 1929, 1930, 1931, 1934, 1935, 1937) as cited by (Willey and Sabloff, 3rd. Ed. 1993)

1929 – A.E. Douglass developed dendrochronology A.E. Douglass, an astronomer, extended his study of tree growth rings to southwestern archaeology and began the modern science of dendrochronology. Douglass built a master series of growth ring data from long lived tree species. Preserved timbers ands posts from archaeological excavations could be dated absolutely by comparison to the master series. This was of great importance in developing a chronology in southwestern archaeology.(Willey and Sabloff, 3rd. Ed. 1993)

In the 1930's and 40's, the first specimens of robust autralopithicines were discovered in east and southern Africa. These discoveries and the ones that have followed have considerably complicated our view of the hominid family tree. These creatures, which are now classified into several distinct species, represent a line--or several lines--of hominids which evolved along side early human species and undoubtedly interacted with them. These australopithicines (ape species) are small brained (about 400 cc) compared to human species contemporaneous with them, and they are not regarded as ancestral to human beings,. Their huge teeth and skulls, often with prominent dorsal crests to which large jaw muscles attached, show that they specialized in eating tough plant material. They were apparently vegetarians, while our ancestors evolved as omnivores with a taste for meat.

1932 – Clovis points were found to be an earlier technology than Folsom points. In Clovis, New Mexico amateur collectors found projectile heads and extinct mammal bones lying along the shores of dried up shallow lake beds. The large projectile points lay between the ribs of some of the animals and association was certain. It was discovered that Clovis was even earlier than Folsum as sites were located where Folsum points lay directly over Clovis points. The Great Depression of the 1930'ssaw many public works projects that filled in some of the chronological gaps between Clovis and Folsum as well as more recent artifacts. (Fagan, 1987, Willey and Sabloff, 3rd. Ed. 1993)

1934 - The Indian Reorganization Act puts an end to the allotment policies of the 1887 Dawes Act.

1935 - The Indian Arts and Crafts Board is funded under the U.S. Department of Indian Affairs to encourage Native arts and crafts and to certify the authenticity of Indian products.
1935 - The Historic Sites Act of 1935-- The Historic Sites Act of 1935 an Act to provide for the preservation of historic American sites, buildings, objects and antiquities of national significance was developed. This legislation made it national policy to preserve significant historic or prehistoric sites for the inspiration and benefit of the people of the United States. The Department of the Interior through the National Park Service was charged with securing existing information concerning likely sites and to prepare a survey of these sites with the aim of determining those with particular significance. The department was further charged with making any additional investigations and research necessary to validate those sites deemed significant. The department was given the authority to acquire such properties, within limitations, for the purpose of their preservation. The department was authorized to make agreements with public or private agencies for contract of those treatments of the sites deemed appropriate by the department. The department was further authorized to restore or reconstruct or otherwise treat sites with an aim towards preservation and benefit within the purpose of the act. The department was to erect plaques or otherwise commemorate sites of significance and to develop an educational program and service for the purpose of making available to the public facts and information pertaining to significant historic or prehistoric sites.(Historic Sites Act of 1935

1935 – 1940 Chronologies and dating techniques gained importance. Franz Boas influenced all anthropologists and archaeologists. A major goal was the complete description of artifacts and the grouping of artifacts into categories that could be subdivided into artifact types. Archaeologists worked to define which cultures were associated with certain types of artifacts. They classified potsherds, arrow points and burial mounds as belonging to certain cultures. The archaeologists attempted to infer something about the people who produced the artifacts.
Franz Boas had a major influence during this time period, which is sometimes called the Boasian period. His influences directed people to create time sequences for projectile point shapes, pottery styles and other material items. From the Boasian viewpoint, culture was defined as “a conglomerate of traits coalesced and held by a group of people resulting either from that group’s own peculiar history of invention or from contact with new ideas originating outside their society.”(Woodall p.33)Other popular views of culture were structural-functionalism and cultural materialism. Both of these views were based on a definition of culture as a means of adaptation.

1945 – 1946 WWII ends and the Interagency Archaeological Salvage Program begins---- At the end of WWII, the U.S. government began plans to damn rivers for the purposes of hydroelectric power, water storage, recreational facilities and flood control. In the plains, the majority of the sites are located along rivers, and the damming of the rivers would result in the loss of these sites. As a result, the Interagency Archaeological Salvage Program was developed which allowed for these sites to be excavated prior to the damming of the rivers. The type of archaeology done at these sites is known as salvage archaeology. The study of plains prehistory is dominated by salvage archaeology. Salvage archaeology has resulted in excavations being speeded up with no chance to restudy the areas. Interpretations of sites are made based on one study that was not completed under ideal situations.

1946 - Missouri River Basin Project In 1946, the Missouri River Basin project began. This was the first of the salvage projects and it was organized by Waldo Wedel. Frank H.H. Roberts was appointed the National Direction of River Basin surveys. The Missouri River Basin includes most of the central, northwestern and northeastern plains.

1948 – Walter W. Taylor criticized the current methods used in archaeology-- In his Ph.D. dissertation, Walter W. Taylor criticized archaeologists for not focusing on anthropology. He said that archaeology as it was currently being conducted was not archaeology; rather, it was historical reconstruction. This was one of the first times that archaeology and cultural processes were deemed important aspects of archaeology.

1950s - The U.S. government adopts the Federal Relocation Policy of "terminating" tribes: that is, settling all obligations, withdrawing federal support and closing reservations. Congress eventually terminates services to over 60 tribes across the country. Many tribal members are relocated to urban areas.

1960 – Archaeology becomes a part of Anthropology.---- The 1960’s mark a change in attitude among archaeologists. Prior to this time, the goal of archaeology was description of artifacts. Beginning in 1960, description as well as interpretation of the artifacts is important. This means that archaeology has become a technique for recovering anthropological data. Archaeologists formulate theories about cultural processes and test the theories through generating hypotheses and testing the hypotheses.
Many new techniques have developed. Historical data is used to compare archaeological finds with known facts. This is helpful is creating hypotheses and models. Analysis or artifacts, such as pottery help determine cultural traits such as matrilocality and patrilocality. A technique has developed that uses clusters of different patterns in styles of pottery techniques or other craft techniques to help determine typical residence patterns.
1960s Federal Laws and Archaeology

1961 - Over 500 Native Americans gather for the American Indian Chicago Conference to support tribal sovereignty and survival. That same year, the National Indian Youth Council forms, considered by some to be a militant organization. Many other organizations supporting Native Americans are founded throughout the 1960s.

1966- Historic Preservation Act 1966 1968 - Title II of the Civil Rights Act gives full civil rights to individuals living under tribal law. It effectively reversed the 1896 Supreme Court decision, which declared that individuals living under tribal governments were not protected by the Bill of Rights. The American Indian Movement (AIM) is founded in Minneapolis to address the needs of Native peoples, renew tribal spirituality, and reverse destructive governmental policies.

1969 - Beginning in November, a small group of Native Americans called the Indians of All Tribes occupy Alcatraz Island for two years to create a greater awareness of the deplorable circumstances of Indians in the U.S. The island of Alcatraz was the site of a military prison from 1863 to 1933, and a federal prison from 1934 to 1963.
1969- National Environmental Policy Act of 1969

1970 - President Richard Nixon formally ends the termination policies established in the 1950s. Dee Brown publishes Bury My Heart at Wounded Knee. Since its initial publication, over five million copies of the controversial book have been sold around the world.

1972 - In the fall, AIM supporters organize "The Trail of Broken Treaties," for which thousands of Indians drive to Washington, D.C., and occupy the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) headquarters, demanding that the U.S. recognize tribal sovereignty and self-determination.
1972--Homo habilis ("handy man") qualifies as a human almost solely by skeletal anatomy, which is quite like our own; is the earliest known species of the genus Homo; that is, the first human species. It existed from approximately 2.2 to 1.6 million years ago in east Africa. Only a few fossil remains have been discovered , but these specimens exhibit a clear trend toward larger brain size. H. habilis brains are about 30% larger than those of A. africanus. Males were much larger than females. The male is pictured on the left.
----- A nearly complete skull of H. habilis was discovered in 1972 at Koobi Fora on the shores of Lake Turkana in Kenya.and represents the oldest individual human yet discovered/ Its age is estimated at 1.8 million years and its brain capacity at 800 cc. Other H. habilis remains have since been discovered at Olduvai Gorge. They lived--open bush and savannah country in east Africa. ** **
Homo habilis was first discovered in 1959 in the Olduvai Gorge in Tanzania.
-------------- Homo erectus finds are in the Rift Valley of Africa and in South Africa. Homo erectus co-existed with other species of hominids such as A. africanus and the robust autralopithicines. Stone tools and camp sites are widely distributed over Africa, including sites in what is now the Sahara desert. By at least 1 million years ago, H. erectus migrated out of Africa to Asia and Europe. Recent dating techniques applied to earlier finds in Java and the Caucasus mountains indicate dates much earlier than that and would place Homo erectus in Asia over 2 million years ago. Such early dates would, if proven accurate, dramatically overturn the currently accepted chronology of early human development. At this date, however, the earliest claimed dates for H. erectus outside of Africa are still highly controversial. **
----Great Rift Valley, geological fault system of SW Asia and E Africa. It extends c.3,000 mi (4,830 km) from N Syria to central Mozambique. The northernmost extension runs S through Syria and Lebanon, the Jordan valley, the Dead Sea, and the Gulf of Aqaba. It continues into the trough of the Red Sea and at the southern end branches into the Gulf of Aden, where it continues as part of the Mid-Oceanic Ridge of the Indian Ocean. The main section of the valley in Africa continues from the Red Sea SW across Ethiopia and S across Kenya, Tanzania, and Malawi to the lower Zambezi River valley in Mozambique. Many small lakes in Ethiopia and several long narrow lakes, notably lakes Turkana and Nyasa, lie on its course. Just N of Lake Nyasa there is a western branch, which runs north, chiefly along the eastern border of Congo (Kinshasa); this branch is marked by a chain of lakes, including lakes Tanganyika, Kivu, Edward, and Albert (Mobutu). Lake Victoria does not lie in the Great Rift Valley but between its main and western branches. The Great Rift Valley ranges in elevation from c.1,300 ft (395 m) below sea level (the Dead Sea) to c.6,000 ft (1,830 m) above sea level in S Kenya. Erosion has concealed some sections, but in places, notably in Kenya, there are sheer cliffs several thousand feet high. The present configuration of the rift, which dates from the mid-Pleistocene epoch, is probably a result of a rifting process associated with thermal currents in the earth's mantle (see rift valley); there is evidence of earlier rift structures.
1973-76 - AIM supporters occupy Wounded Knee in 1973, demanding a congressional investigation of Native American problems. Federal officers are sent in, and during the ensuing gunfights, two Indians are killed and several people on both sides are injured. In the three years following The Second Siege of Wounded Knee, 61 AIM supporters are killed on or near the Pine Ridge Reservation, despite ongoing FBI investigations. In a controversial ruling, Leonard Peltier is convicted and imprisoned for the 1975 killing of two FBI agents.

1974 ** Australopithicus afarensis is a recently discovered Hominid species which lived in north east Africa, in the Hadar region of Ethiopia). Until 1995, this species was the earliest known member of the Hominid family. Australopithicus afarensis lived from approximately 4 to 2.7 million years ago along the northern Rift valley of east Africa, and perhaps even earlier.
Fragments of more than 300 individuals of Australopithicus afarensis have been discovered so far, including a remarkably complete skeleton of an adult female (nick- named "Lucy") . "Lucy" was found in 1974 near Hadar in Ethiopia. Her skeleton has provided a wealth of information about the ancestral line of human beings, some of it quite surprising. She was only about 3 feet, 8 inches tall. Males were somewhat taller and twice as robust.
Thus far, fossil remains of over 300 individuals of A. afarensis have been discovered. To date, all the remains of this species have been found in the Hadar region of Ethiopia, part of the Rift Valley of east Africa. "Lucy," the most complete find, was discovered in 1974. Hominid footprints 3.5 million years old have been found at Laetoli in Tanzania. Scientists estimate that A. afarensis lived from approximately 4 million years ago (or earlier) to around 2.7 millions years ago. (see 1994, 1995 )

1975 - The Indian Self-Determination and Education Assistance Act gives Native Americans more control in administering federal programs and services to their people.

1977-78 - U.S. Congress passes a series of approximately 50 laws that help redefine tribal issues regarding water rights, fishing rights and land acquisition. Some land is returned to the tribes, and issues of self-governance are further clarified.

1978 - The Indian Child Welfare Act ends the discrimination that prevented Native Americans from acting as foster parents or qualifying for adoption. It also provides Indian communities with child welfare and family services. The American Indian Religious Freedom Act finally reverses U.S. policies outlawing certain tribal rituals and shamanic practices.

1979 Archaeological Resources Protection Act 1979

1980 - The Supreme Court rules that the U.S. owes the Lakota Sioux interest from a 1877 payment as compensation for taking the Black Hills, originally part of Indian lands. The Lakota reject the payment, hoping to reclaim the Black Hills from the U.S.

1989 - The National Museum of the American Indian Act orders the Smithsonian Institute to return Native American remains to American Indian tribes.

1990 - The Native American Grave Protection and Repatriation Act protects Indian gravesites on federal public lands against looting. The Indian Arts and Crafts Act, which goes into effect in 1996, finally protects the work of Indian artists, an effort that began in 1935.
1990- Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act of 1990

1992 - The celebration of the 500th anniversary of the arrival of Christopher Columbus to the Americas prompts protests from many Native American tribes and supporters.

1994, ** A. afarensis was the earliest Hominid species yet discovered. At that time, remains of another species, tentatively called Australopithicus anamensis, was discovered in the Lake Turkana region of east Africa and appears contemporary with afarensis, dating to approximately 4.2 million years ago. A. anamensis is also an erect, bi-pedal species, and its discovery pushes direct evidence of our distinctive Hominid form of locomotion back to over 4 million years ago. The first studies of this species are still in progress and more information will be forthcoming. There is evidence that, contrary to previous assumptions, these early Hominids had developed bi-pedalism prior to the disappearance of woodlands and forests in eastern Africa--that is, our Hominid ancestors were by chance "pre-adapted" to the conditions of drier, more open country that came to prevail in eastern Africa later on. (see 1974, 1995 )

1995 in Ethiopia, at Aramis, just south of Hadar, of a creature possibly ancestral to A. afarensis. Its teeth and other bones are even more chimp-like than "Lucy's" (A. afarensis). The species name for this creature is ramidus, after an Ethiopian word meaning "root." From the surviving bones, it is not possible to tell if ramidus was bi-pedal and therefore a Hominid australopithicine. It is still being intensively studied. Some scholars have proposed a new genus name, Ardipithicus, on the assumption that it was not bi-pedal. It appears that A. ramidus (whether properly named Ardipithicus or Australopithicus), lived in a forest environment.(see 1974, 1994 )

1997 - Corporation for Public Broadcasting establishes Native American Public Telecommunications, Inc., (NAPT) to promote, produce and distribute Native American television and radio programming.

1999 - On March 22, Sioux people establish the Oceti Sakowin spiritual camp on La Framboise Island in the Missouri River near Pierre, South Dakota, in protest of the treaty-breaking Danklow Acts (Terrestrial Wildlife Habitat Restoration Act and Water Resources Development Authorization), which give 200,000 acres of tribal lands to the state of South Dakota.

July 7, 1999, President William Clinton visits the Pine Ridge Reservation in South Dakota for a "nation to nation" business meeting and tours the reservation's housing facilities. The president signs a pact with Oglala leaders establishing an empowerment zone and participates in a conference on home ownership and economic development for Native Americans.

2000 - On January 16, the activist group Grass Roots Oyate begins its occupation of the Red Cloud Building at the Oglala Sioux Tribal Headquarters, Pine Ridge Reservation, in protest of what they deem the corrupt, oppressive and ineffective politics of tribal leadership. Federal officials remove financial records the following day, and the elected tribal president was eventually suspended. The activists vow to continue the occupation until their demands are met.

In September 2000, the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) determine that bones of the 9,000 year-old human remains known as Kennewick Man, found in the Columbia River in Washington, be returned to the five Indian tribes that have claimed him as their ancient ancestor, as determined by the Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act of 1990.

2001 -- 450,000 year old skull of Tautavel Man found in southern France. photographs of excavating in Arago Cave, several reconstructions of the face of Tautavel man, the flora and fauna of his environment, his tools, and modern paintings of what life must have been like 450,000 years ago.

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