Researched by Victoria Taylor-True 2005-2006
Annals of Colonial North America Series Indian native language linguistic historical vocabulary Americanist Algonquian Iroquoian Algic Iroquois book Evolution Publishing Jesuit Relations Jesuits martyrs missionaries Thwaites 17th century Beaver Wars.
Originally published in Iroquois Wars II , this listing is useful for placing historical tribal names for otherwise well-known eastern woodland tribes . The names of obscure or extinct tribes are also included. Please note that the tribal names listed here are those which appear with frequency in the Jesuit Relations or other 17th century French sources. Also, identities of many of these poorly-known tribes are still a matter of scholarly debate.
The citations included refer to the Thwaites edition of the Jesuit Relations, 1896-1901. Info from The Erie Indian Moundbuilders Tribal Nation are also included. Other references will be listed to include but not be limited to resourcing.
Update 2005 - The Erie Indian Moundbuilders Tribal Nation. , listing all tribal names for reference guide.
Abenakis; Abenaquiois; Abnaquiois; Abnaquinois; Abnaki; Wapanachki; Wabenakies: An Algonquian-speaking tribe of New Brunswick and Maine (JR, 12:274, fn 22). Closely related to the Micmacs and perhaps the same as the Etchemins. Later allies of the French. Enemies of the Iroquois in 1647 (see JR, 31:195).
Arosaguntacook; Amirgankaniois; Eastern Abenaki tribe of the Androscoggin River
A'chawi, Nation of Very probable that the Erie appear under the name Achawi, or A'chawi, which was seemingly their Algonquian appellation. And it may be that this name is a form of Smith's Ulchowig, the final q being the animate plural sign. It is evidently a translation of the Iroquois-Huron name Rhiierrhonon and cognate forms (see Erie), which signify, apparently, 'People of the place of panthers,' or possibly of wildcats, the name being generic for both of these animals. For wildcat, Smith gives utchunquoyes, Strachey gives utchoonggwai for a cat or a wild beast much larger and spotted black under the belly like a lynx, and uttacawai for "lyon," which of course was probably intended for panther, and the native terms employed by him are evidently cognate.
Kennebec; Akenebek; Narantsouat: Eastern Abenaki tribe of the Kennebec River
Penacook; Penagouc: Western Abenaki tribe of the Upper Merrimack River in southern New Hampshire.
Sokokis; Socokis; Socoquiois; Sokokinois; Sokouckiois; Sokoquiois; Sokoueki: A Western Abenaki tribe from the Saco River. Occasional enemies of the Mohawks and the Algonquins at Sillery (See JR, 24:311, fn 15).
Achirwachronnon, see Ojibwa: Achiligouan
Agniers/Agnierrhonons, see Iroquois: Mohawks
Agnongherronons, see Iroquois: Mohawks
Ahondihronons, see Neutrals
Ahouenrochrhonons, see Wenros
Ahrendarrhonons, see Hurons: Nation of the Rock
Akenebek, see Abenaki: Kennebec
Algonquins Algonquains Algonkins: Both the name of a specific tribe and also used more generally for any tribe that spoke Algonquian languages. The Algonquins proper as they were known to the French were primarily made up of the following tribal groupings:
Iroquet also written Hiroquet, Hirocay, Iroquay, and Yroquet; Onontchataronons (in Huron); Ountchatarounoungas; Ounountchatarounongak: the name of both the tribe and its chief (see JR, 5:289, fn 52).
Alimiwec, see Illinois
Outaoukotwemiweks Kotahoutouemi (JR, 18:258, fn 14).
Keinouche Kinonchepiirinik: located south of Morrison’s Island
Island Nation Nation de Isle; Island Algonquins; Kichesipiirini (in Algonquian); Kichesipiiriniouek; Ehonkehronons (in Huron). Located around Allumettes Island in the Ottawa River (see JR, 5:291, fn 57).
Matouweskarini; Mataouchkairinik: located on the Madawaska River
Petite Nation; Ouescharini; Ouaouechkairiniouek: Originally located on the northern tributaries of the Ottawa River (see JR, 5:291, fn 56).
Amikouas; see Ojibwa: Amikwa
Amirgankaniois see Abenaki: Arosaguntacook
Andarahironnons, tribe of unknown affiliations; perhaps a subtribe of the Huron (cf. Ataronchronons, Arendaronons) or Neutral (cf. Ahondihronons).
Andaste/Andastoerrhonons, see Susquehannock
Andatahouats, see Ottawas
Aniers, see Iroquois: Mohawks
Anniengehronnons, see Iroquois: Mohawks
Aondironon, see Neutrals
Aoueatsiouaenrrhonons, see Winnebagoes
Arendarhonons, see Hurons: Nation of the Rock
** Arreghaga , see Black Minqua
Armouchiquois: A catch-all name for the New England coastal tribes.
Asistagueronon means Nation of Fire see Potawatomi
Askicouaneronons, see Nipissings
Assistaeronnons, see Fire Nation, and Mascouten
Ataronchronnons, see Hurons:Nation of the Bog
Atchougek, see Ojibwa: Atchougek
Atiaonrek, an unknown tribe or subtribe perhaps located near the Neutrals.
Atignenongach, see Hurons: Nation of the Cord
Atiouandaronks see Neutrals
Atiraguenrek see Neutrals
Atirhangenrets see Neutrals
Atiwandaronks see Neutrals
Atontrataronnon A poorly-known tribe, perhaps a subdivision of the Algonquins
Atra'kwae Atrakwaeronnons; Trakwaehronnons: An unknown tribe or subtribe perhaps located near the Neutrals or Susquehannocks.
Attignaouantans, see Hurons: Nation of the Bear
Attigneenongnahac, see Hurons: Nation of the Cord
Attiguenongha, see Hurons: Nation of the Cord
Attiniatoenten, see Hurons: Nation of the Cord
Attikameks Attikamegues; Atikamegues; Attikamagues; Poissons Blancs; Whitefish:
An Algonquian-speaking tribe dwelling on the upper St. Maurice River. Closely related to the Montagnais and often at war with the Iroquois, by whom they were practically destroyed in 1661. (9:307, fn 20)
Attiwandarons, see Neutrals
** Awenrehronons, see Wenros
Aweatsiwaenrrhonons, see Winnebagoes
Beaver Nation, see Ojibwa: Amikwa
Bersiamites, see Montagnais
Bissiriniens, see Nipissings
Black Mingua, the word "black" said to refer to "a black badge on their breast," while "Minqua" indicated their relationship to the White Minqua, or Susquehanna
Honniasont. An Iroquois term meaning "Wearing something round the neck." The Honniasont belonged to the Iroquoian linguistic family.
They were located on the upper Ohio and its branches in western Pennsylvania and the neighboring parts of West Virginia . This tribe occupied parts of the eastern fringe of Ohio after it had been incorporated into the Iroquois and perhaps before.
The Honniasont appear first as a tribe which assisted the Susquehanna in war and traded with the Dutch, but a little later they are reported to have been destroyed by the Susquehanna and Seneca. The, remnant seems to have settled among the Seneca, and a Minqua town, probably occupied by their descendants, is mentioned from time to time among the latter and in the neighborhood of their former country.
Their population is unknown, but as late as 1662 the Honniasont must have been fairly numerous if the testimony of five Susquehanna chiefs taken in that year is to be relied upon, which was to the effect that they were then expecting 800 Honniasont warriors to join them.
Carantouans: A poorly known tribe perhaps located between the Senecas and the Susquehannocks in northern Pennsylvania.
Cat Nation, see Eries.
Cayugas, see Iroquois
Chaouanaquiois: a tribe of New England whose affiliations are unknown.
Chaouanons, see Shawnee
Cheveux-Relevés, see Ottawas
tribe was located in the Manitoba Hudson Bay area. Located in the tundra, the landscape is rocky with sparse vegetation, mostly lichens and mosses. The Chipewyans were accomplished hunters; one of the only resources available was animals, which they used for food and for clothing. The only other food source was fish. They caught fish with nets made from raw caribou skins. There was a lot of superstition involved in fishing and several ceremonies were performed before the nets were cast. The food they caught was consumed raw probably due to the lack of combustible fuels. The Chipewyan had, within their tribe, shamans who would tell stories about native animals like the wolverine and wolves, which they believed, had special powers. These animals would not be hunted or killed by the tribesmen and were respected; however they were not worshipped. Within the Chipewyan tribe, a man’s wealth is measured in furs and in wives. In the tribe a man's wives could be won or lost through wrestling. In these matches the two men would wrestle until one man conceded and the winner would take the women back to his tent.
Conestoga, see Susquehannocks
Conkhandeenrhonons: A poorly known Iroquoian-speaking tribe perhaps living on the northern shore of Lake Ontario (see JR, 8:302, fn 34).
one of the traditional groups of seminomatic people which inhabited the Coronation Gulf area in Canada. The Coronation Gulf is located, on present-day maps, in the Canadian Nunavut territory, east of the Canadian Northwest Territories. All of the eskimo tribes that inhabited the Arctic coastline from the Bering Sea to Greenland, and the Chukehi Peninsula in NE Siberia were: the Siberian, St. Lawrence Island, Nunivak, Chugach, Nunamiut, North Alaska, Mackenzie, Copper, Caribou, Netsilik, Iglulik, Baffinland, Coastal Labrador, Polar, and East and West Greenland. Each group formed their own culture and survived according to the resources that were made available to them. For example, the Copper Eskimo made use of native copper deposits in their region to trade with other groups. Also, the lifestyles of the groups were very similar due to the climatic similarities. (The modern day name for eskimo is "Inuit". Copper Eskimo is referred as the "Inuit", or Copper Inuit", or "Central Eskimo" in. Eskimo refers to all native Eskimo-speakers [Yupik and Inupik], and the modern and historic Canadian Inupik speakers are called "Inuit".)
Archeologists have revealed the Dorset and Thule eskimo. The Dorset culture flourished between 500 BC and 1000 AD. After the Dorset culture there was the eastward movement of the Thule Eskimo, which coincided with a warm period between 900 and 1200 AD.
Cree Cri; Cristinaux; Kiristinon; Kilistinons: An Algonquian speaking tribe from the interior of central Canada (JR, 18:259, fn 15). See Maskasinik.
Abitibi Outabitibek; Outabitibecs: A West Main Cree tribe living around Lake Abitibi near Hudson Bay
Delawares An Algonquian-speaking tribe inhabiting the Lower Hudson River, western Long Island and the entire Delaware River.
In early times this tribe occupied the eastern parts of Pennsylvania along Delaware River; later they were, for a time, on the Susquehanna and the headwaters of the Ohio.
The name is derived from that of Delaware River. which in turn, was named for Lord Delaware, second governor of Virginia.
Abnaki; Properly Wabanaki, "those living at the sunrise," "those living at the east," "easterners.""Easterners," from their position relative to many other Algonquian tribes. (See Abnaki under Maine, Wampanoag under Massachusetts, and Wappinger under New York.)
Alnanbai, own name, meaning "Indians"
A-ko-tca-ka'nen, "One who stammers in his speech," the Mohawk name. The Oneida and Tuscarora names were similar.
Aquannaque, Wabanaki as pronounced by Huron.
Bashabas, name given them from a principal chief.
Gannon-gageh-ronnons, name given by Mohawk.
Moassones, from a name applied to their country; perhaps from Penobscot Maweshenook, "berry place."
Narankamigdok epitsik arenanbak, "villages of the Narankamigdog," said to be a collective name for all the Abnaki villages.
Natio Luporum, "Wolf Nation."
Natságana, name given by Caughnawaga Iroquois.
Onagungees, Onnogonges, Anagonges, or Owenagunges, name given by the Iroquois.
Skacewanilom, name given by the Iroquois.
Tarrateens, name given by the tribes of southern New England.
Anakwancki, Cherokee name, an attempt at Wabanaki.
Lenni Lenape, (their own name), meaning "true men," or "standard men".
Loup, "wolf" so called by the French.
Mochomes, "grandfather," name given by those Algonquian tribes which claimed descent from them.
Nar-wah-ro, Wichita name.
Renni Renape a form of Lenni Lenape.
Tca-ka'nen, shortened form of Mohawk name given above.
Ehonkehronons, see Algonquins: Island Nation
Enskiaeronnons, see Ojibwa: Saulteaux
Entouhonorons, see Iroquois: Seneca
Eries – Nation of the Cat – Rhiierrhonons – Riguehronons – Riquehronnons – Eriechronons – Ehriehronnons – Errieronons – Erigas: An Iroquoian-speaking tribe or confederacy originally located on the southeastern shore of Lake Erie. (see JR, 8:302, fn 34; see also JR, 21:191 & 313, fn 11).
Gentaguetehronnons – Gentagega: subdivision of the Eries
Eriniouai, see Illinois
Eskiaeronnons, see Ojibwa: Saulteaux
Eskimaux, see Montagnais: Eskimaux
Etchemin – Etechemins – Etheminqui: an Algonquian-speaking tribe, perhaps independent or a subdivision of the Abenaki or Maliseet-Passamaquoddy
Etiennontatehronnons, see Petun
Fire Nation; Assistaeronnons (in Huron); Atsistagherronnons;
A catch-all term originally referring to a group of related tribes on the Michigan Lower Peninsula, who were enemies of the Neutrals and the Ottawas (see JR, 5:279, fn 19; see also JR, 27:27). The term was later restricted to the Mascouten alone. See also Mascouten.
Fox; Outagami: An Algonquian-speaking tribe originally of the Michigan Lower Peninsula.
Gandastogué, see Susquehannock
Gens Puants, see Winnebagoes
Gentagega, see Eries
Gentaguetehronnons, see Eries
Goyogouins, see Iroquois: Cayuga
Hirocay/Hiroquet, see Algonquin: Iroquet
Hiroquois, see Iroquois
Hochungara see Winnebagoes
Honniasont see Black Minqua
Ouendake (called Huronia by the French) was the original homeland of the Huron occupying a fairly compact area of central Ontario between the southern end of Georgian Bay and Lake Simcoe. After the dispersal of the Huron by the Iroquois in 1650, one group relocated to Lorette (just north of Quebec) where it has remained ever since. The remaining Huron (merged with Tionontati, Erie, and Neutrals) spent the next 50 years wandering as refugees through Wisconsin, Minnesota, and upper Michigan. By 1701 they had moved to the Ohio Valley between present-day Detroit and Cleveland where they were known as the Wyandot. They remained there until they were removed to Kansas during the 1840s. Only one group of Wyandot managed to remain in the Great Lakes, when a small band of the Canadian Wyandot in southwest Ontario was given a reserve near Amherstburg. For the Wyandot relocated to Kansas, problems began with the passage of the Kansas-Nebraska Act (1854) which opened their lands to white settlement. The majority opted for citizenship and allotment and are currently have state recognition as the Wyandot of Kansas. Most still live in the vicinity of Kansas City, Kansas. The more traditional Wyandot left Kansas for northeast Oklahoma after the Civil War to became the Wyandotte Tribe of Oklahoma.
Originally, more than a dozen of the Iroquoian-speaking tribes in southern Ontario referred to themselves collectively as Wendat meaning "villagers."
Rendered variously as: Guyandot, Guyandotte, Ouendat, Wyandot, and Wyandotte. The French, however, called the members of a four-tribe confederacy the Huron, a derogatory name derived from their word "hure" meaning rough or ruffian. This has persisted as their usual name in Canada. When they were living in Ohio after 1701, French and Canadians continued to use Huron, but the English and Americans referred to them as Wyandot. Currently, most groups prefer Wyandot rather than Huron.
Also called: Aragaritka (Iroquois), Hatindia Sointen (Lorette Huron), Marian (Christian Huron), Oenronroron (Iroquois), Telamatenon (Delaware "coming out of a mountain or cave"), Thastchetci' (Onondaga), Ochasteguis
A large, sedentary, Iroquoian-speaking confederacy located between Georgian Bay and Lake Simcoe in fifteen or more villages. Contact population approximately 30-40,000 (see JR, 16:225ff.). Destroyed and dispersed by the Iroquois in 1649–1650. See entry for Wyandots.
Nation of the Bear Attignaouantans;
The most important tribe of the Huron confederacy. Principle town was called Tequeunoikuaye (also named Quieuindohian, Ossossané, or La Rochelle (French) (see JR, 5:278, fn 17; see also JR, 5:292, fn 60).
Illinois Eriniouai; Irini; Ilinioues; Alimiwec:
A collection of Algonquian-speaking tribes originally situated along the Illinois and Mississippi Rivers (see JR, 18:259, fn 17).
Nation of the Bog Ataronchronnons: A tribe of the Huron confederacy.
Nation of the Cord Attiguenongha; Atignenongach; Attigneenongnahac; Attiniatoenten:
A tribe of the Huron confederacy closely aligned with the Nation of the Bear (see JR, 8:294, fn 23).
Nation of the Deer – Tahonta¸enrat – Tohontahenrats: A Huron tribe whose principal town was called Scanonaenrat (see JR, 8:303, fn 38).
Nation of the Rock – Nation de la Roche; Arendarhonons; Ahrendarrhonons **; Arendaeronnons; Arendageronon; Renarhonons: Easternmost tribe of Hurons (see JR, 8:294, fn 24; see also 20:305, fn 1).
Irini, see Illinois
Iroquay/Iroquets, see Algonquins
Iroquois Irocois; Iroquoys; Hiroquois; Hyroquois; Yroquois: The name for the confederacy of five sedentary tribes ranging across central New York.
Mohawks – Agnierrhonons – Agneehronons – Agneehronnons – Agnongherronons – Anniengehronnons – Agniers – Aniers – Annieneronens – Anniehronnons – Annie‘ronnons – Annieyer’onons – Moaghs – “the people of theflint” – Maquas (Dutch): Easternmost of the Iroquois tribes. Commonly engagedin war with their French and Indian neighbors throughout the 17th century.Principle town was Ossernenon (also called Osserinon, Agnié, Oneougiouré,Asserua, and later Cahniaga or Caughnawaga) (see JR, 8:300, fn 34).
Island Nation/Island Algonquins, see Algonquins
Oneidas – Oiotchronon – Onoiochronons – Oneiouchronons – Onneichronnons
– Onneioutheronnons – Oneiotchronon – Oneoutchoueronon – Onneiohronnons –
Oneiouts – Onneiouchtronons – Onneyouts: One of the “younger brothers” of
the Iroquois confederacy located near Oneida Lake in central New York. Chief
village named Ononjoté (see JR, 8:300, fn 34; see also JR, 27:275ff.
and JR, 27:315, fn 23).
Onondagas – Onontaerrhonons – Onnontaes – Onontaeronons – Onnontaeronnons – Onnondaetonnons – Onnontagués – Onondáhka (in their own tongue): One of the most influential of the Iroquois nations. Originally situated incentral New York between the Oneidas and Cayugas. Principal town and Iroquois capital was called Onnontagué (see JR, 8:299, fn 34).
Cayugas; Onionenhronnons; Onioenhronnons; Ouioenrhonons; Oiogeronon; Ouiogweronons; Ouioenrhonons; Oiogouanronnon; Oiogoen; Oiogouins; Oiogouan; Goyogouins; Oiogoenheronnons; Wiogweronons
Senecas – Sonontoerrhonons – Sonnontoehronnons – Santweronons –
Sontouaheronnons – Entouhonorons (?) (Champlain) – Sonnontouans – Sonnontweronnons
– Sonnontaehronnon – Sonontwenronnons – Tsonnontouans – Sinnekens (Dutch):
the westernmost and also the largest of the five Iroquois tribes. (see JR,
8:293, fn 21). Their major town was called Sonontoen (also called Sonnontouan,
Tsonnontouan, or Tegarnhies) (see JR, 8:302, fn 35).
Kah-kwahs: A little-known Iroquoian speaking tribe possibly located between the Senecas and the Neutrals. May have been a subdivision of the Neutrals
or the Eries (see JR, 8:302, fn 34).
Kennebec, see Abenaki: Kennebec
Kepatawangachik, unknown Algonquian (?) tribe, possibly the Kipawa Algonquin
Khionontaterrhonons, see Petun
Kichesipiirini, see Algonquins: Island Nation
Kichkagoneiak, see Ottawa: Kiskakon
Kilistinons, see Cree
Kinonchepiirinik, see Algonquin: Keinouche
Kiskakons, see Ottawa: Kiskakon
Kotahoutouemi, see Algonquins
Loups, see Mahicans or Delawares
Machkoutench, see Mascouten.
Maganathicois, see Mahican
Mahicans – Maganathicois – Mahiganiouetch – Mahingan – Mahinganak
– Mahinganiois – Loups – Nation of the Wolves: An Algonquian-speaking tribe
or confederacy of tribes ranging from Western Massachusetts to the Hudson
River. Early trading partners of the Dutch and sometime enemies of the Mohawks
(see JR, 18:259, fn 18).
Malouminek, see Menominee
Maquas, see Iroquois: Mohawks
Maroumine, see Menominee
Mascouten – Mascoutins – Machkoutench – Assistaeronnons (in Huron)
– Atsistagherronnons – Assista Ectaeronnons – Nation of Fire: An Algonquian-speaking
tribe originally from the Lower Peninsula of Michigan.
Maskasinik, Algonquian-speaking tribe of unknown affiliation; possibly
West Main Cree.
Mataouchkairinik, see Algonquin: Matouweskarini
Men of the Raised Hair, see Ottawa
Menominees – Maroumine – Malouminek – Oumalouminek – An Algonquian-speaking
tribe originally situated near Green Bay (see JR, 18:259, fn 17).
Miami – Oumami: An Algonquian-speaking tribe located at the southern
end of Lake Michigan.
Micmacs – Souriquois – Sourikois – Tarretines: An Algonquin-speaking
group of tribes originally situated on the Gaspe peninsula, Nova Scotia, and
New Brunswick. Closely related to the Abenakis and often hostile to the Iroquois.
Minquas, see Susquehannocks
Michesaking, see Ojibwa: Mississauga
Mississauga, see Ojibwa
Mistasiriniens, see Montagnais: Mistassini
Moaghs, see Iroquois: Mohawks
Mohawks, see Iroquois
Mohegans/Mohicans, see Pequots
Montagnais – Montagnards: An Algonquian-speaking tribe mainly located
in and around Tadoussac at the mouth of the Saguenay on the St. Lawrence River.
Bersiamites – Oumamiweks: A Montagnais subtribe located
on the northern tributaries of the St. Lawrence at the mouth of the Betsiamites
River (see JR, 18:257, fn 13).
Nadouessi/Nadouessioux, see Sioux
Eskimaux: A subtribe north of the Gulf of St. Lawrence at the mouth
of the Romaine River
Mistassini – Mistasiriniens: A subtribe living around Lake Mistassini
Papinachois: A subtribe living on the upper Betsiamites River.
Piécouagami – A subtribe living near Lake St. John
Porcupine Nation – Kakouchac: A subtribe dwelling on the banks
of Lake St. John (see JR, 14: 287, fn 13; see also JR, 31:251).
Nadwechiwec, see Sioux
Nahiganiouetch, see Mahicans
Naiz Percez, see Ojibwa: Amikwa
Naraganses, see Narragansetts
Narantsouat, see Abenaki: Kennebec
Narragansetts – Naraganses: An Algonquian-speaking tribe west of
Nation de l’Isle, see Algonquins: Island Nation
Nation des Puans, see Winnebagoes
Nation of the Bear, see Hurons
Nation of the Bog, see Hurons
Nation of the Cat, see Eries
Nation of the Cord, see Hurons
Nation of the Rock/Nation de la Roche, see Hurons
Nation of the Sorcerers, see Nipissings
Nation of Stinkards, see Winnebagoes
Nation of Wolves, see Mahicans
Natwesix, see Sioux
Negaouichiriniouek, an Algonquian (?) tribe neighboring the Potawatomi,
possibly an Ottawa clan (see JR 73:175)
Neutrals An Iroquoian-speaking confederacy of tribes originally located west of the Niagara River. Destroyed by the Iroquois during the 1650s (see JR, 8:297, fn 34; see also JR, 8:304, fn 41; JR, 21:189; and JR, 21:313, fn 11). The Neutrals were a confederacy, but the names and exact number of the member tribes are unknown. The following names have been associated with them, but could be either tribes or villages: **
Champlain, reporting what he saw in 1616, wrote that the “Nation Neutre” had 4,000 warriors and inhabited a country that extended 80 or 100 leagues E. and W., situated westward from the lake of the Seneca; they aided the Ottawa ( Cheueux releuez ) against the Mascoutens or “Small Prairie people,” and raised a great quantity of good tobacco, the surplus of which was traded for skins, furs, and porcupine quills and quillwork with the northern Algonquian peoples.
Nez Perces, see Ottawa: Amikwa
Aondironons Ahondihronons; Ahondihronnons; Ondieronii: A tribe of the Neutrals located nearest the Hurons. Destroyed by the Senecas, 1648 (see JR, 18:259, fn 18).
The Aondironon, constituent tribes of the Neutrals. Champlain, reported what he saw in 1616, inhabited country that extended 80 or 100 leagues E. and W., situated westward from the lake of the Seneca;
Atiraguenrek Atirhangenrets; A subtribe of the Neutrals located on the Bernou map of 1680 west of Lake Ontario.
Niaggorega Niagagarega, Onguiaahra, Ongiara. Onguiaronon Ouaroronon, Onguiarahronons Ongmarahronons, : the Niagara portion of the Neutrals (JR, 18:259, fn 18).
The word "Onguiaahra" appears on documents as early as 1641, and a little later "Ongiara." Both are Iroquios Indian words thought as meaning "The Straight." A more romantic meanings "Thunder of Waters" is also given. The usual distortion of unwritten word have transformed it to "Niagara."
192 dji nonville's exfeditioit. known by the same name. It is not probable that Brebeuf visited the cataract, as no mention is made of it in the narrative.
It ia in thia word, " Onguiaahra," that we undoubtedly have the germ of Niagara, and it is interesting to notice the changes and modifications which it has undergone.
It next appears as " Ongiara," on Sanson's Map of Canada, published in 1657, seventeen years after Brebeuf's visit, and is there applied to the Fall*.
On Ducreui's latin map, attached to his Historim Canadenns, publiihed in 1660, the Falls are called " Ongiara Cataractes," or the Cataract of Niagara.
In 1687, we find De Nonville using the present orthography, and since that time, all French writers have uniformly written the word " Niagara." The English, on the other hand, were not uniform in spelling it, until about the middle of the last century.
The following are some of the changes which occur among different English writers:
1687, Oneagerah—London Documents, Albany, vol. Hi. p. 177.
" Onygara— do. do. do.
1747, Iagara—Colden's Five Nations, Appendix, p. 15. " Oniagara— do. do. do. p. 79.
1757, Ochniagara— Smith's History of New York, vol. 1. p. 220. 1769, Ogniogorah—Knox's Historical Journal, vol. 2. p. 139.
Onguiaahra and Ongiara, are evidently identical, and present the same elements as Niagara. They are undoubtedly compounds of words expressive of some meaning, as is usual with aboriginal terms, but which meaning is now lost. The " o " which occurs in both the French and English orthography, is probably a neuter prefix, similar to what is used by the Senecas and Mohawks.
One writer contends that Niagara is derived from Nyah'-gaah', or as he writes it " Ne-ah'-gah," said to be the name of a Seneca village which formerly existed on the Niagara River below Lewiston, and now applied by the Senecas to Lak* Ontario.
Thia derivation, however, cannot be correct, for Onguiaahra, and its counterpart Ongiara, were in use as names of the River and Falls, long before the Seneca village in question was in existence. The Neutral Nation, from whose language the words were taken, lived on both borders of the Niagara until they were exterminated by the Senecas in 1643.
It is far more probable that Nyah'-gaah', is a reappearance of Ongiara in the Seneca dialect, and this view is strengthened by the fact, that the former, unlike most Iroquois names, is without meaning, and as the aborigines do not confer arbitrary names, it is an evidence that it has been borrowed or derived from a foreign language.
The conclusion then, is, that the French derived Niagara from Ongiara, and the Senecas, when they took possession of the territories of the Neutral Nation, adopted the name Ongiara, as near as the idiom of their language would allow» and hence their name Nyah'-gaah'.
Ongniaahraronon, constituent tribe of the Neutrals. Champlain, reported in 1616, inhabited a country that extended 80 or 100 leagues E. and W., situated westward from the lake of the Seneca
Wenrehronon, constituent tribes of the Neutrals. Champlain, reported in 1616, inhabited country that extended 80 or 100 leagues E. and W., situated westward from the lake of the Seneca
Nikikouek, see Ojibwa: Nikikouek
Nipissings – Nation of the Sorcerers – Bissiriniens – Nipicirinien
– Nipissiriniens – Askicouaneronons (in Huron): Tribe originally located at
the lake of the same name north of Georgian Bay. Attacked and displaced by
the Iroquois in the early 1650s. (see JR, 5:279, fn 18; see also JR, 21:239ff.).
Noquet, see Ojibwa
Noukek, see Ojibwa: Noquet
Noutchihout – Tribe of uncertain identification located on the Lower
Hudson; probably Minsi Delawares.
Ochasteguis, see Hurons
Oiogeronon, see Iroquois: Cayuga
Oiogouins, see Iroquois: Cayuga
Oiogouanronnon, see Iroquois: Cayuga
Oiotchronon, see Iroquois: Oneida
Achiligouan – Achirwachronnon (Huron): a subtribe between
Lake Nipissing and Georgian Bay
Ondassa¸anens, unknown tribe, possibly Susquehannock or Iroquois
(see JR, 73:195)
Amikwa – Naiz Percez (Nez Perces) – Beaver tribe – Amikouas – Amiskou
– Amikouek – Nation du Castor. situated on the north shore of Georgian Bay
(see JR, 10:322, fn 6).
Atchougek: subtribe located west of Georgian Bay
Mississauga – Oumisagai – Michesaking – Missisaki – Aoechisaeronon
(Huron) – Awechisae’ronnons: An Algonquian-speaking, southeastern Ojibwa tribe
situated north of Lake Huron (see JR, 18:259, fn 16).
Nikikouek: subtribe located west of Lake Nipissing
Noquet – Noukek: subtribe located on the eastern end of Lake Superior
Ouasouarini – Ouasaouanik: subtribe located on the southeastern
end of Georgian Bay
Saulteaux – Sauteurs – “People of the Great Sault” – Pagouitik
– Eskiaeronnons (Huron), Enskia¸’ronnons: a subtribe situated
at Sault St. Marie.
Ondatonateni, see Potawatomi
Ondataouaouats/Ondatawawak, see Ottawa
Ondieronii, see Neutrals: Aondironons
Oneidas, see Iroquois
Oneiouts/Oneiouchronons, see Iroquois: Oneidas
Oneronons, see Wenros
Ongmarahronons, see Neutrals
Onguiarahronons, see Neutrals
Onionenhronnons/Onioenhronnons, see Iroquois: Cayuga
Onneyouts, see Iroquois: Oneidas
Onnondaetonnons, see Iroquois: Onondagas
Onnontaes, see Iroquois: Onondagas
Onnontagués, see Iroquois: Onondagas
Onoiochronons, see Iroquois: Oneidas
Onontchataronons, see Algonquins: Iroquets
Onondaga, see Iroquois
Onondáhka, see Iroquois: Onondagas
Onontaerrhonons, see Iroquois: Onondagas
Ontôagannha – Ontwagannhas – Outouagannha – Touagenha – Touaghannha
– Fire Nation: A catch-all name used by the Iroquois for the Algonquian-speakers
to their west. See also Fire Nation, Shawnee
Ottawa – Outaouak – Outawak – Outawats – Outaouax – Outaëk –
Ouraouakmikoug – Men of the Raised Hair – Cheveux-Relevés – Andatahouats
(in Huron) – Ondataouaouats – Ondatawawak: A tribe originally situated between
Lake Huron and Georgian Bay, including
Manitoulin Island. (see JR, 14:284, fn 9; see also JR, 33:273, fn 6). Also
a catch-all term for the Upper Algonquian tribes north of Lake Huron (e.g.
Kiskakon – Kichkagoneiak – Kiskacoueiak – Kichkankoueiak:
subtribe living at Green Bay after the Huron dispersal
Ouakwiechiwek: unknown Algonquian-speaking (?) tribe of the North.
Nation of the Fork – Nassauakueton: subtribe of uncertain location
Ouaouechkairiniouek, see Algonquin: Petite Nation
Ouasaouanik, see Ojibwa: Ouasouarini
Ouendat, see Hurons
Ouescharini, see Algonquins: Petite Nation
Ouinipigou, see Winnebagoes
Ouioenrhonons, see Iroquois: Cayuga
Ouiogweronons, see Iroquois: Cayuga
Oukiskimanitouk: unknown Algonquian-speaking tribe, possibly the
Oumalouminek, see Menominee
Oumamis, see Miami
Oumamiweks, see Montagnais: Bersiamites
Oumisagai, see Ojibwa: Mississauga
Ounountchatarounongak/Ountchatarounoungas, see Algonquins: Iroquets
Oupouteouatamik, see Potawatomi
Ouraouakmikoug, see Ottawa
Ousaki, see Sauk
Outabitibek, see Cree: Abitibi
Outaëk, see Ottawa
Outagami, see Fox
Outaouak, see Ottawa
Outaoukotwemiweks, see Algonquins
Outawak/Outawats, see Ottawa
Ovenibigoutz, see Winnebagoes
Pagouitik, see Ojibwa: Saulteaux
Païsans: a unknown group, probably Algonquian
Papinachois, see Montagnais: Papinachois
Penagouc, see Abenaki: Penacook
Pequots – Mohicans – Mohegans – Mohighens – Morchigander: an Algonquian-speaking
tribe from the Connecticut area.
Petite Nation, see Algonquins: Petite Nation
Petun – Tobacco Nation – Khionontaterrhonons – Tionnontates – Tionnontatehronnons
– Etiennontatehronnons: An Iroquoian-speaking tribe originally situated to the west of the Hurons near Georgian Bay. Sometime allies and occasional enemies
of the Hurons. Nearly annihilated by the Iroquois, 1649–1650 (see JR, 5:279, fn 18). See also Wyandots.
Piécouagami, see Montagnais: Piécouagami
Pocumtuck Pagamptagwe: An Algonquian-speaking tribe of western Massachusetts.
Porcupine Nation, see Montagnais
Potawatomis Asistagueronon, Pouutouatami , Oupouteouatamik; Pouteouatami , Poutewat; Ondatonateni:
An Algonquian-speaking tribe originally from the Lower Peninsula of Michigan. (see JR, 18:259, fn 17; see also JR, 23:325, fn 7).
Puants, see Winnebagoes
Renarhonons, see Hurons: Nation of the Rock
Rhiierrhonons, see Eries
Riguehronons, see Eries
Santweronons, see Iroquois: Seneca
Sauk – Ousaki: An Algonquian-speaking triibe originally of the Michigan
Saulteaux, see Ojibwa
Sauteurs, see Ojibwa
Seneca, see Iroquois
Shawnee – Chaouanons: An Algonquian-speaking tribe of the Ohio River
Sinnekens, see Iroquois: Seneca
Sioux – Nadouessi – Nadouessioux – Nadwesiou – Nadwesseronons – Nadwechiwec
– Natwesix – Lakota: A catch-all term for plains tribes speaking Siouan languages.
Socokis, see Abenaki: Sokokis
Sonontoerrhonons, see Iroquois:Seneca
Sonnontouans, see Iroquois: Seneca
Sontouaheronnons, see Iroquois: Seneca
Sokokis, see Abenaki: Sokokis
Souriquois/Sourikois, see Micmacs
Susquehannocks Andaste; Andasto Andastoeronnons; Andastaeronnons; Andastogueronnons; Andastahoueronnons; Conestoga; Gandastogué
; Minquas (Dutch):
An Iroquoian-speaking tribe or confederation from central and southern Pennsylvania. Allies of the Hurons and long-standing enemies of the Iroquois.
The Susquehannock appear to have been a confederacy of at least five tribes with more than 20 villages. Unfortunately, the names of individual tribes and villages have been lost. Names associated with the Susquehannock are:
Akhrakuaeronon (Atrakwaeronnon), Akwinoshioni, Atquanachuke, Attaock, Carantouan, Cepowig, Junita (Ihonado), Kaiquariegehaga, Ohongeoguena (Ohongeeoquena), Oscalui, Quadroque, Sasquesahanough, Sconondihago (Seconondihago or Skonedidehaga), Serosquacke, Takoulguehronnon, Tehaque, Tesinigh, Unquehiett, Usququhaga, Utchowig, Wyoming, and Wysox.
Takoulguehronnons: an unknown tribe or subtribe perhaps located near the Neutrals.
Tangwaonronnons – Tangouaen: an Algonquin subtribe or village, probably located just west of Georgian Bay and north of Huron country (see JR 36:247).
Tarretines, see Micmacs
Tionnontates, see Petun
Tobacco Nation, see Petun
Tohontahenrats, see Hurons: Nation of the Deer
Touagenha/Touaghannha, see Ontoagannha
Trakwaehronnons, see Atrakwae
Tsonnontouans, see Iroquois: Seneca
Wabenakies, see Abenakis
Wapanachk, see Abenakis
Wendats, see Wyandots
**Wenros; Wenrôhronons; Oneronons; Ahouenrochrhonons; Awenrherhonon:
A small Iroquoian-speaking tribe originally located at the eastern end of Lake Erie between the Neutrals and the Iroquois. Sometime ally of the Neutrals, later of the Hurons (JR, 8:302, fn 34).
Wiogweronons, see Iroquois: Cayuga
Winnebagoes; Gens Puants; Nation des Puans; Nation of Stinkards; Ouinipigou (in Algonquian); Ouinipeg; Ouinipegouek; Ovenibigoutz; Aoeatsioaenronnons
(Huron); Aweatsiwaenrrhonons: A Siouan-speaking tribe inhabiting the Fox River valley and shores of Green Bay (see JR, 15:247, fn 7).
belong to the Dakota family, migrated eastward from beyond the Missouri, meeting the Algonquins in the region of the lakes.
The name was given them by the last named Indians, and signifies men from the fetid or salt water, whence the name Puants, given to them by the French. They were styled by the Sioux, Hotanke or Sturgeon. The Hurons and Iroquois called them Awentsiwaen, but they called themselves Hochungara.
Wolves, Nation of the, see Mahican
Wabanaki see Delwares
Wyandots Wendats: An amalgam tribe probably constituted of the remnants of the Petun and the Hurons after their dispersal by the Iroquois in 1649;1650.
Yroquet, see Algonquin: Iroquet
Yroquois, see Iroquois
Erie is a short form of the Iroquian word 'Erielhonan' meaning literally 'long tail', and referring to the panther (cougar or mountain lion). With French contact limited to one brief meeting, very little is known for certain about the Erie except they were important, and they were there. The Dutch and Swedes also heard about them through their trade with the Susquehannock, but never actually met the Erie. Like other Iroquian peoples in the area, the Erie were an agricultural people. They were traditional enemies of the Iroquois, and there had been many wars between them before the Europeans. The Iroquois, who always mentioned the Erie were great warriors, have verified the long-term hostility, and also add that the Erie frequently used poisoned arrows in war.